Due to the abundance of wealth and the continuous evolution of eating habits in developed countries, the number of obese people in the world has steadily increased in recent years . So much so that today, obesity rhymes with a global scourge.
A scourge that is considered a chronic disease , and many organizations (health, pharmaceutical and even political) are trying as best they can to prevent and fight obesity, which is a preventable cause of death and which costs millions every day to health systems.
Indeed, the WHO estimates that if today 2.3 billion people are overweight (with 700 million obese), this figure should swell to reach 3.3 billion by 2030. Obesity has therefore become a galloping global epidemic, which, unlike others such as tobacco, is not decreasing.
There are many causes that can explain obesity, but the main one is too much daily consumption of calories over a long period (several years at least).
This factor is aggravated when the individual in abundance of calories does not spend, or too little, energy which helps to preserve all these calories within his body and to store them.
This refers to an imbalance in energy homeostasis, or the ratio of calorie consumption to energy expenditure , in favor of the former. These fatty stores are themselves carriers of complications and other pathologies that can lead to death. Every minute in the world, 5 people die of obesity, or 3.4 million per year.
Obesity can therefore be extremely dangerous for health , some scientists estimate that people with very excess weight lose 8 to 12 years of their life expectancy.
It is therefore necessary to take charge before observing irremediable damage to your health. Fortunately, there are many methods and treatments to get out of this downward spiral.However, losing weight requires unwavering persistence and motivation, even with the help of obesity medications or surgeries.
Thus, before you turn to weight loss drugs , ( Xenical can be a good solution because this treatment allows to block the process of fat absorption and thus, prevent weight gain because these harmful fats no longer pass into the body. blood), we advise you to try the classic methods, which no longer have any secrets: regular physical activity and healthy eating (although we will see it later, other tips can speed up the process).
A further burning and deemed effective fat is Phen375 , which is also directly on the fat allowing to burn three times faster. This treatment is particularly recommended for people who find it difficult to perform physical activity, even if “classic” overweight people also tend to use it.
But first, we advise you to browse this file on obesity below: definition, causes, consequences and treatments for weight loss, this resource is one of the most comprehensive on the web today, and we continue to improve it every day
Obesity definition: what is it?
The WHO – which is the world health organization – considers obesity as “an abnormal or excessive accumulation of body fat, which can harm the health of the obese individual ”. In this sense, there is a scale based on the BMI, body mass index, to classify the different categories of obesity, ranging from simple overweight , to morbid obesity which can be fatal to those who suffer from it. is reached.
Obesity in France represents 18.3% obese, obese women being more numerous than men . More generally, overweight in France concerns 4 5.6% of the population, which is therefore identified as being overweight (according to the study by The Lancet).
We have to differentiate between overweight and obesity . Overweight is the stage preceding that of obesity, less serious than the latter because it is always possible to return to an ideal and harmonious weight with easier efforts to provide and faster results.
Being overweight can be temporary and temporary, the human body preferring to store rather than destock to ensure its survival. So caught early enough, the problem can be resolved more quickly.
However, obesity makes it more difficult to return to a normal weight, because at the stage of obesity, the metabolism has changed in depth. Indeed, adipose tissue is at the heart of metabolic balance, to which it contributes thanks to its adipose cells which absorb lipids and the signals it sends to the brain and other organs on energy reserves, all forming a very linked system.
It is therefore a fatty mass composed of cells, the size of which increases as they are fed with lipids. However, in a context of imbalance of the energy balance, that is to say with an abundant supply of fats and sugars, adipose tissue is disturbed and the volume of cells reaches a critical and maximum size. Thus, to continue to absorb the lipids ingested, they will call on other cells to take over to load themselves with fat .
This reaction of the cells reflects the aggression caused by food, and their response to this aggression is to grow in volume until reaching a critical size and no longer being able to breathe: we therefore speak of inflammation . At this stage the metabolism has changed and the cells send distress signals to the brain and organs in the form of inflammatory molecules such as TNF alpha.
These pro-inflammatory, toxic and harmful factors, which come from adipose tissue, will therefore be found in the bloodstream of obese people (although there would be none if they had a normal weight) and in other organs: it is the whole network which is affected in flames. There is therefore a clear relationship between adipose tissue cells and the complications they cause on other organs: hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, atherosclerosis.
Thus, we speak of obesity as being a systemic inflammatory disease (low level because the inflammation is low) due to the abnormal accumulation of molecules associated with systemic insulin resistance, characteristic of obesity. In doing so and over the long term, this disturbance becomes chronic, obesity sets in for a long time. It becomes more difficult for those people with obesity to regain a normal weight because the metabolism has changed.
- – 18.5: you are too thin, which can also be a health hazard.
- 18.5 and 25: you are in good health
- 25 and 29: you are not considered obese, but you are overweight.
- 30 and 40: at this stage, we are talking about obesity.
- over 40: this is called morbid obesity. Talk to a health professional quickly because there are risks to your health.
Based on this body mass index, it is estimated that around the world there are 1.5 billion adults with characteristics of overweight and about ⅓ of them would be considered obese.
Note: BMI, although used around the world as a formula to measure overweight, is not precise enough to determine whether or not a person is actually obese. Indeed, other factors, such as bone structure or significant muscle mass are not taken into account in this formula. So it may be that a person who is very muscular or with very heavy bones could be considered obese based on their BMI alone.
This is why doctors associate this figure with the RTH index , which is the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference which measures abdominal obesity and makes it possible to indicate more precisely whether a person is obese by measuring the body fat. trunk (ie, if its fat mass is too important at this level). Indeed, measuring this distribution of fat makes it possible to identify the type of android or gynoid obesity and the level of dangerousness thereof.
If this ratio is greater than 0.8 in women and 0.95 in men , then you have android-like adiposity, with a greater chance of developing cardiovascular accidents because fat is mainly stored on the part. upper body where vital organs (hearts, lungs) are located: this is the deep or visceral adipose tissue.
If your ratio is below these thresholds , it means that your adiposity is gynoid type, with fat distributed on the hips, buttocks and thighs. They are also called peripheral tissues and are less dangerous with regard to cardiovascular diseases, but no less problematic for all the other complications caused by obesity.
To measure your waist size , start standing up and wrap a tape measure around the narrowest part that starts under the last rib. Abdominal obesity is from a waist circumference greater than 88 cm for a woman, 102 cm for a man.
What are the causes and consequences of obesity?
Obesity, the imbalance between calorie intake and energy expenditure, is an inflammatory disease and a multifactorial disease because it is caused by three major families of factors: social, environmental and genetic .
Of course, when we talk about causes and consequences, it is difficult to apply them to everyone because each individual has a different organism. However, when analyzing a large number of overweight people, some trends (more or less obvious) emerge.
The different causes:
There are many causes that can justify obesity more or less, most can be eradicated from everyday life with a little motivation, others are more intrinsic.
- A sedentary lifestyle
It is the first environmental factor that characterizes the tendency towards a sedentary lifestyle in our modern societies. Sedentary lifestyle is synonymous with progress but also with regression if we believe the impact it has on health. In fact, on the one hand, sedentary lifestyle refers to the reduction in travel induced by the development of efficient public transport, home services and the Internet which prevent us from having to travel much, teleworking and connected objects … which are just as many of technological and civilizational progress markers.
However, they are also traps for people who reduce themselves to using them. For example, in some cities of Texas in the USA, you can spend an afternoon without even having to get out of your car: receiving your groceries, going to the bank, picking up your laundry from the dry cleaners, ordering junkfood. The Mc Drive concept, a famous service set up by the eponymous international fast food chain, has been exported to many areas and sectors. All this in fact induces travel reduced to a minimum , for energy expenditure also minimal and maximum fat storage.
- Lack of physical activity
This factor refers to a sedentary lifestyle, the two often being closely linked. Indeed, being sedentary and limiting one’s movements by using mechanical transport, for example, induces a lack of physical activity. However, if we do not bring more calories to our body than we spend them , it goes without saying that it has no other choice but to store them since it has no use. .
- Easier access to food: poor diet and development of fast food restaurants.
This societal factor refers to the development of the agro-food industry and the abundance of food supply in supermarkets on the one hand, and the fast food supply on the other. Supermarkets and agro-food first of all are a key marker of the glorious 30’s and of our modern societies.
However, this food offering comes with a range of ready-to-reheat meals packed with excess fat, sugars and salts . All these components will reinforce the easy weight gain. From the 1970s, the quality of our food deteriorated, with the use of fructose syrup and hydrogenated fats in food, and a whole bunch of substances used to improve their appearance (such as emulsifiers).
This dietary factor is linked to a sedentary lifestyle because we observe that instead of remaining exceptional, more and more people are opting for prepared meals as an easy solution at the office or when they come home at night. However, by making this choice, individuals consume food that is not very nutritious and of poor quality, with too much fat and bad fat, sugar, salt and additives.
The quality of our food bowl and also to link to the quantity. Fast foods are also among the markers of our modern societies, which increased exponentially at the end of the 20th century. If today we measure and communicate more on the negative aspects of this type of fast food, habits are no less conducive to the consumption of junk food rich in fats and sugars . In addition, this type of restaurant also offers an abundant supply of food, with increasingly larger portions and the unlimited system of soft drinks, sodas and sauces in particular, helping to increase the caloric intake of meals by swallowing even more sugars and fats.
Finally, the food industry, supermarkets and fast food restaurants all have the same engine, the omnipresent marketing and advertisements on junk food which encourage consumption.
There are two aspects, first the genetic predisposition to obesity, then monogenic obesity. The first aspect refers to polygenic obesity : scientists have in fact identified 6 genes involved in the hereditary development of obesity because they are responsible for metabolic abnormalities.
These 6 genes all pose an increased risk for developing obesity, but each play a different role. One gene plays a role in the propensity to obesity from childhood by promoting childhood obesity, while another only promotes weight gain in adults . Another plays a role in the onset of satiety. Finally, others influence our eating behavior and participate in its control.
Other genes are essential in the production of hormones, and in this sense will determine the biological capacity to secrete insulin intervening in the regulation of blood sugar or digestive hormones involved in the feeling of satiety. If this capacity is weak, then the individual does not regulate the sugar level correctly nor does not feel satiety: this individual is all the more likely to be obese . Genes are therefore the fertile ground for the development of obesity because they modify the function of certain proteins, hormonal production and metabolism.
If, for example, the process of transforming fats, lipolysis, is genetically altered, this therefore means that there is a metabolic anomaly: instead of transforming fat into heat and energy, the metabolism will rather promote its storage . These metabolic abnormalities due to genetic mutations also refer to basal metabolism, which characterizes the capacity of lean tissue and muscle to spend the energy supplied to them. People with a low basal metabolic rate are more likely to gain weight easily and become obese because this basal metabolism uses up to 60% of energy if it is functioning properly.
These multiple hereditary dispositions of obesity are highlighted by family resemblance studies. If only one parent is obese, childhood obesity occurs with an 8% probability, and doubles if both parents are . If we add grandparents to both obese parents, then the risk can go up to 65% depending on the number of obese grandparents.
These tests were also carried out on adopted children whose biological parents are known to be obese: the results show that they too have developed childhood obesity. These polygenic factors combine with environmental factors . Children raised in a family of obese parents or in an obesogenic environment will tend to gain weight faster and more easily, because from an early age they will be influenced in the eating behavior and their metabolism accustomed to this high calorie diet.
Obesity as a monogenic disease is very rare (5% of obese) and refers to the mutation of a single gene which materializes in a congenital leptin deficiency. However, leptin is an essential hormone in the appearance of satiety, in fact playing a central role in energy balance. If a child born with a leptin deficiency, the disappearance or reduction of appetite does not occur and this child is all the more exposed to childhood obesity and to a consequent weight gain.
- Stress and other psychological factors
Stress as the cause of obesity is twofold. First from a biological point of view, people who tend to be stressed very regularly, but especially those who develop chronic stress, release cortisol, a hormone that promotes metabolic syndrome and android obesity . But it is also the case during a strong mental effort, which causes the consumption of glucose by the brain and the release of cortisol. If this effort is caused by or is accompanied by stress, then this consumption is much higher . As a result, the feeling of hunger is felt significantly.
Then from a behavioral point of view, stress like other types of psychological distress can lead to the regular consumption of calories, especially during peaks of stress or anxiety attacks. Eating is intended to be soothing and allows the person to find some comfort.
More generally, man does not eat only for his survival and therefore according to his metabolic cycle, but can connect food to a notion of pleasure, comfort or other emotions. In this regard, certain emotions felt, such as anxiety, worry, fear, can thus induce eating behaviors such as snacking to compensate for these emotions and promote weight gain. As a result, people who are stressed or depressed are more exposed to weight gain.
- Eating behavior disorders.
There are several levels of eating disorders, all of which lead to weight gain and promote obesity.
The first is snacking . It consists of a repeated intake over a long period of mainly industrial foods, fatty and sweet, without the person necessarily being hungry. We can eat a packet of cake in one hour, then continue with crisps the second hour. Snacking does not indicate a mental disorder but often accompanies times of the day or activities such as watching a movie, TV, working at your computer or playing video games. They can also reflect boredom. Snacking is a trap because not only does the person not observe any activity but also accustom his stomach to be in constant activity, thus pushing him to ask for more: putting on weight is therefore inevitable.
The second level covers food compulsions . They manifest themselves as an urgent and vital need to eat when the person is not hungry. She feels this need to eat at all costs which is accompanied by pleasure; the foods are therefore chosen to obtain pleasure. These food intakes are impulsive, unpredictable, rapid and obviously concern large quantities of poorly nutritious products very rich in calories.
So weight gain is also inevitable . 30 to 40% of obese people suffer from these food compulsions. This is partly due to the fact that they reflect poor management of his diet. For example, people who try hard to diet but go about it badly, or follow an unsuitable diet, will want to eat even more and think about it even more.
The urge to eat is omnipresent and comes back all the more strong and obsessive, the person cracks and has a compulsive crisis. However, food compulsions also refer to mental disorders , which are linked to the loss of self-confidence, to a poor self-image, to anxiety … There are therefore mental mechanisms that are put in place: the more the person is anxious or thinks negatively, the more it will link this to the need to eat, which will necessarily increase the frequency of seizures and the inherent weight gain.
The third level is that of bulimia and is related to the compulsion in its mental aspect. The mental mechanisms are similar: a compulsive crisis is triggered as soon as the person experiences a negative feeling (anxiety, poor self-image, self-loathing). If this crisis is also characterized by its frequency, its impulsiveness and its speed, it nevertheless concerns foods which are certainly very rich in sugars and fats, but which are not chosen because the person takes no pleasure and has no feeling of hunger. She is aware that she is losing control and unlike the food compulsion alone, this loss of control leads to a deep rejection and self-loathing which materializes in voluntary vomiting after a compulsive crisis.
These eating disorders are therefore very conducive to weight gain first because they concern high-calorie foods that promote obesity, but also because they disrupt the gastric cycle and modify the size of the stomach. In some cases, the stomach and the body are used to receiving large amounts of food, continuously or frequently: they adapt, ask for more, and the person gets fat. In other cases, the body stores food because the supply is uncertain and the person gains weight too.
- Sleep deprivation and disturbances
The sleep disorders act here also doubly.
First from a biological point of view , studies show that there is a relationship between duration of sleep and weight gain. Getting 5 hours of sleep a night increases your risk of becoming obese by 55%. This is explained by the fact that the night is a good time to regulate the appetite cycle.
It is during this privileged night period when the whole body is on standby that it produces leptin, a hormone secreted in the stomach which sends the signal of satiety to the brain. The night is also the time when the metabolism is regulated and rebalanced. However, if we sleep little or not, the body produces more ghrelin, which stimulates the appetite , than leptin, which reduces it: the metabolism goes awry.
Added to this the fact that by nature, it is at night that the metabolism is the least able to assimilate the food ingested in the evening , and it will prefer to store them. Insomnia also increases the risk of obesity, by stimulating the production of cortisol, responsible as we have already seen increasing the feeling of hunger also especially when the brain makes a sustained effort, as is the case when he is unable to get to sleep when the body is tired. Again this disrupts the metabolism which will be less able to regulate glucose . However, cortisol also plays a role in the appearance of deep visceral adiposity.
Finally, staying awake requires energy, and the body craves it; thus, being tired or lacking in sleep makes you hungry. Then from a behavioral point of view, we add to this biological phenomenon the fact that people who stay up late or suffer from sleep disorders such as insomnia, will tend to nibble.
People will therefore disrupt their eating behavior by snacking on sugary foods, in particular to give themselves energy. They risk developing a nocturnal food intake syndrome, that is to say always being hungry after 10 p.m. and thus entering a vicious circle which will make them fatter towards obesity. In this regard, this syndrome is already present in 8% of obese people.
Thus, by a double mechanism on the metabolic system and on the behavior, the lack of and disturbed sleep are responsible for an increased risk of obesity but are also responsible for aggravating the complications linked to obesity. Sleeping less than 6 hours increases the risk of developing type II diabetes and hypertension four times.
This inevitable period in the life of a woman who sees her body change inside and out, sometimes causing weight gain and overweight. On the outside, it is above all a distribution of fat that menopause disrupts, by localizing them on the abdominal part.
It is therefore deep adipose tissue giving its android form which explains why we more often observe postmenopausal women with more belly . In question, the change which takes place inside, the hormonal disruption which will create this fatty accumulation around the abdomen. However, this visceral adipose tissue is responsible for an increased risk of developing diabetes in particular. However, these remarks must be qualified, because this increase in weight, if it is more likely to occur, is especially favored by the notable drop in physical activity of these women at a certain age.
Therefore, continuing to practice regular physical activity in pre and post menopause considerably reduces this risk of accumulation of abdominal fat.
- The pregnancy
Weight fluctuations observed during pregnancy affect almost all women. In question, the energy needs in constant increase, because of the expenditure of the body to make the baby grow and ensure health for the mother, and the needs of the baby itself. It also adds hormonal changes that increase appetite and feelings of hunger . As a result, many women eat more and gain weight.
In addition, physical activity, because it is complicated and annoying, is reduced. So it is true that many women gain weight during their pregnancy and find it difficult to lose their extra pounds after childbirth. If these pounds are not lost immediately after childbirth then they become more difficult to eliminate over the years and successive pregnancies.
As a result, some women become obese after their first child. However, being pregnant does not necessarily mean getting fat . Of course, it is normal to see the gain of a few pounds necessary to maintain good physical health, but this does not have to be synonymous with gaining weight or being excessively overweight. Indeed, the fetus really needs more energy during the last trimester, and this energy is recovered by 200 kcal.
In other words, there is no need to eat for two nor to “binge” . Weight gain during pregnancy is more the result of behavior, stimulated by the hormonal change, that should be controlled in order to avoid giving in to the feeling of hunger and snacking, without depriving you of the cravings for time. time.
Above all, do not stop the practice of a physical activity , in which case you promote the sustainable installation of your extra pounds. Nothing justifies it and on the contrary, keeping a regular physical activity during your pregnancy makes it possible to feel better and to suffer less from the hazards inherent in pregnancy such as heavy legs, back pain, swollen ankles …
- Certain diseases and drugs
This cause concerns a very small proportion of obese people, ie 2% of them. It is important to note, however, that certain diseases can be a breeding ground for the development of obesity, as well as medications that promote weight gain.
Among the diseases, one evokes the disease of hypothyroidism which qualifies a deficient production of hormones by the thyroid gland, however essential. Indeed, it plays a central role in the regulation of the metabolism, the expenditure of energy of the muscles and therefore the weight . Therefore if its activity is abnormal and disturbed as is the case in this disease, then its impact on the whole system is very important, and no longer being able to regulate the metabolism, the risk of obesity is important and the occurrence of the weight gain is higher.
Another disease is Cushing’s syndrome, which manifests itself in particular by obesity of the upper body and face .
Finally, depression is often associated with an eating disorder, whether it is non-eating or on the contrary, overeating as a comfort in the face of the distress felt by the subject. Obesity is also linked to the taking of drugs and in particular to treat these diseases.
For example antidepressants, which use certain molecules (such as amitriptyline) to treat depression but which have the side effect of increasing appetite and increasing the appetite for sugary foods, or neuroleptics. Thus, if disease and medication both contribute to weight gain, the risk of becoming obese is then multiplied by two .
Other drugs can also make you gain weight and expose you to obesity. Corticosteroid therapy, which is used to treat arthritis, polyarthritis, as well as many other diseases. However, these corticosteroid drugs, which are steroid hormones, increase the feeling of hunger and cause a metabolic mechanism that promotes storage.
Thus the causes are multiple , making obesity even more pernicious. Everyone is exposed, because of their environment, their heredity … If several factors combine, then the individual is all the more exposed and the risk of weight gain increases considerably.
The consequences on health:
The health impact of obesity is substantial and multiple. It is also one of the most deadly factors , alongside tobacco consumption for example, but a factor called “avoidable”.
In this list, we will not mention the different psychological consequences of obesity. Indeed, it has been proven that overweight people, due to the physical criteria advocated by current society, have strongly depressive and anxiety-inducing tendencies because they consider themselves to be “excluded” from society.
The particularity of obesity is that it almost systematically induces a whole group of pathologies and disorders which favor each other by a snowball effect.
In addition, if at least three of them are diagnosed – if there is a high level of waist circumference, blood pressure, dyslipidemia: triglycerides or cholesterol, uricemia, finally blood sugar – then the patient is suffering from metabolic syndrome, which itself considerably increases the risk or even inevitably generates three other pathologies mainly (but others are also triggered): type 2 diabetes, heart attack and stroke or stroke.
In this regard, it is estimated that obesity and overweight are responsible for 44% of type 2 diabetes, 23% of cardiovascular disorders, and about 7% of cancers.
From a general point of view, the consequences on the physical health of obese people can therefore be very serious, and their average life expectancy is significantly lower than that of people who are not overweight. Among the health consequences, we find:
- Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is one of the first manifestations of obesity , because it is one of the first clinical signs that can diagnose obesity in an individual. Indeed, as soon as a person is overweight or obese, we quickly see a change in their biological markers in favor of type 2 diabetes.
These are the presence of a high blood sugar level (greater than 6.2mmol / L of blood), ie high blood sugar, even on an empty stomach. Type 2 diabetes is defined as diabetes contracted by excessive sugar absorption (as opposed to insufficient insulin of a genetic nature). This is the consequence of excess insulin production by the pancreas which, by being subjected to insulin spikes, becomes exhausted and no longer fulfills its function of regulating sugar in the blood circulation. .
Type 2 diabetes , due to the aggression and intoxication caused by too much sugar, causes damage to nerves, blood vessels, kidney pain, causes blindness and is fertile ground for development. cardiovascular diseases by promoting vascular damage (not to mention the other risks associated with obesity)
- Hypertension and cardiovascular disorders
Cardiovascular diseases are caused by the presence of a double factor that refers to the metabolic syndrome: type II diabetes by too high a sugar level and cholesterol by too high a fat level .
In an individual who consumes too much sugar, the body responds with an overproduction of insulin in order to eliminate the amount of sugar that is too much in the blood, which requires the heart to be overactive. There is therefore an increase in his cardiac output and the blood volume necessary to cope with it. This overactivity also leads to stiffness of the arteries and an increase in blood pressure.
It is hypertension, characteristic of obesity and which is high when it is located above 140/90 mmHg. High blood pressure is a demand for blood flow and in this regard, can increase the risk of stroke and heart attack if the blood flow is not sufficient.
In an individual who absorbs too much fat, the body has to store these fats all over the place where there is room. The fact of having fat accumulated in the arteries and around vital organs is typical of obesity and refers to cholesterol in particular. A high cholesterol level is above 1.6 g / L for people with risk factors (such as obese people with type 2 diabetes for example ).
These fatty plaques are therefore lodged in the arteries and can thus narrow their caliber. However, when the fats stored and accumulated in the organs and in particular the coronary arteries prevent a sufficient quantity of blood from progressing to the heart; there is coronary insufficiency.
If the heart muscle, the myocardium, is no longer continuously supplied with oxygen, its cells gradually die. There is therefore necrosis and lesions are created, which causes death by myocardial infarction. This coronary artery disease, called ischemic heart disease , is among the most common cardiovascular diseases.
Other heart and brain disorders are also very common, triggered by insufficient blood flow due to atheroma, the presence of fatty plaque in the arteries that prevents normal blood flow. This is because ischemia can lead to a stroke either because an artery or vein ruptures or because of their obstruction by clots or plaques of fat , both of which make normal blood flow impossible. People with stroke, if they do not die, can be affected their whole life by being paralyzed.
In total, we see that high blood pressure increases the risk of stroke and heart attack, and is itself caused by high cholesterol, which itself increases the risk of stroke and heart attack by creating atherosclerosis and preventing optimal blood flow. A vicious circle and a snowball effect that only weight loss and a return to normal weight will eradicate.
- Chronic kidney disease
If the causal link is still being studied, the first results show a significant correlation between overweight / obesity and the development of chronic kidney disease. These would then be responsible for a 3 times higher risk of renal failure. This is in particular the direct consequence of the risk factor of obesity in the development of hypertension and diabetes, these two pathologies being themselves responsible for renal failure in more than half of the cases.
But obesity alone is also responsible for chronic kidney disease . It is strongly linked to the abnormal presence of protein substances in the urine. It is said to be abnormal because the kidney function is to filter the blood and therefore retain those useful to the body such as proteins.
This proteinuria is often manifested by glomerular albuminuria, which means that the glomerulus, one of the main filters of the kidneys, has lesions that have allowed these proteins to pass. The filtration capacity of the glomerulus is linked to the surface area and body overload of a person, inevitably high in obese people and which promote glomerulosclerosis, the sclerosis of this organ.
Hypertension, by increasing the rate and speed of renal blood flow, will cause arterial “stress”, leading to narrowing and sclerosis of the vessels going to the kidneys as well as sclerosis of the glomeruli. Their gradual destruction leads to kidney failure.
A vicious circle sets in : renal failure, when the kidneys can no longer regulate blood flow or filter properly, is itself responsible for the increase in blood pressure, which we have seen accelerates in response the deterioration of kidney function. Finally, by accelerating the deterioration of the kidneys, obesity exposes them more directly to cancer .
- Multiple respiratory disorders: respiratory failure, shortness of breath, sleep apnea.
The respiratory problems are very common in obese people . The presence of fat in the chest and abdomen compresses the rib cage and diaphragm, making it harder to breathe because these fatty tissue deposits prevent the lungs from swelling during breaths. This respiratory discomfort can lead to profuse sweating, coughing, wheezing and cardiac acceleration, as well as dyspnea, which is rapid and sudden shortness of breath when minimal or even absent effort is provided.
These manifestations are a sign of an obesity hypoventilation syndrome . Ultimately, the risk is to enter a state of respiratory failure which can cause death by hypoxia. Apparatus is therefore often prescribed for obese people in order to assist them in breathing, especially at night.
Obese people are also very prone to sleep apnea, another characteristic of hypoventilation syndrome. 9% of women and 24% of men are affected by these apneas. These phenomena characterize a spontaneous and uncontrolled interruption of breathing during sleep.
These interruptions in breathing can happen several times an hour and are the cause of very deep daytime fatigue. More seriously, they are in some cases the source of infarction and cerebral heart attacks if the interruption is prolonged, oxygen being lacking in the heart and the brain. These phenomena of respiratory arrest are caused by the presence of fat in the neck , which leads to the narrowing of the airways. Oxygenation is therefore low and endangers obese people in their sleep.
Another characteristic of recurrent pulmonary diseases in obese people is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The prevalence of these chronic systemic diseases affecting the bronchi is higher in obese individuals. The mechanism is more or less the same: fat deposits interfere with respiratory function, this time by obstructing the airways.
The caliber of the bronchi is therefore reduced . The action of exhaling air is therefore made more difficult and the lungs contain a large volume of low quality air, which is conducive to contracting bronchopneumopathies. In addition, the fact that these airways are reduced in size and diameter, for example, can make the presence of the acidic and toxic liquid coming from the stomach more frequent (although relatively rare) in the bronchi, which can lead to pneumonia. aspiration.
Finally, other respiratory disorders are caused by obesity, because it causes a decrease in the size of the lungs, their vessels and therefore their respiratory capacity and their defense mechanism. The impaired pulmonary function favors the development of other respiratory diseases: asthma, influenza, pneumonia. There is indeed a prevalence of asthma of 92% in obese people, 38 in overweight people.
We also think of pulmonary embolisms, the presence of a fat clot being rare but more likely in the case of an individual with android obesity, a fatty clot that can reach a branch of the lungs and block a blood vessel in the lungs.
- Osteo-articular disorders (osteoarthritis)
People with obesity have noticed that an effort, however small it may be like walking, is a source of joint pain , sometimes forcing them to adapt their gait. This is related to the weight of the body mass on the bones and joints, especially those located on the lower part of the body.
The distribution of fats and their weight exert greater pressure on the joints, which wear out faster. The knee is the most affected, the hips and ankles as well. Osteoarthritis of the knee is quite recurrent in obese subjects who are 5 times more exposed. The knee is usually subjected to a pressure equivalent on average to 4.5 times the weight of the body, pressure which is all the stronger as the weight is important. While knee osteoarthritis and coxarthrosis are the most common, losing 500 grams would be like removing the equivalent of 2 kilos from these joints.
What is more astonishing is the prevalence of osteoarthritis of the hand in obese people . This shows that alongside this mechanical effect of obesity on the joints, there is a metabolic effect of obesity as a factor in osteo-articular disorders. The adipose tissue of obese people acts in the synthesis as well as in the production in higher quantity and in different nature of hormones such as growth hormones or adipokines. This disturbance causes damage to the cartilage and attacks the joints. Osteoarthritis is therefore favored, as is osteoporosis, due to fatty particles which become lodged in the structure and the bone marrow. This leads to a decrease in bone density and weakens the bones, which are more exposed to invoices.
Finally, epidemiological studies show a strong correlation between obesity and gout disease , due to the hyperuricemia observed, a clinical sign of the metabolic syndrome which aggravates gout. In addition, other signs of the metabolic syndrome participate independently in the development of this disease such as hypertriglyceridemia or insulin resistance.
- Higher risk of developing certain cancers
The correlation between obesity and the development of cancer is so strong that obesity is classified as a carcinogen . Obese people produce high amounts of cells and hormones. Indeed, we have seen that the more fat there is in the body, the more the metabolic imbalance occurs via an increase in the volume and number of fat cells.
However, this metabolic imbalance itself causes a hormonal imbalance by increasing their production and their number. In total, a strong presence of these hormones and fat cells released into the bloodstream is associated with a proliferation of adipocyte cells, adipokines, leptin, as well as growth hormones and hormones estrogen or testosterone. This cellular and hormonal abundance promotes the proliferation of cancer cells . Also involved is the low level inflammation of obesity, inflammation which is an established cause of increased risk of developing cancer.
If the risk of uterine cancer is well ahead with 62% exposure, ahead of cancer of the gallbladder (31%) or liver (25%), what is striking is that there are several families of cancers that are involved. With regard to hormone-dependent cancers, the role of the multiplication of estrogen hormones is decisive, because estrogens are themselves cells which promote cell proliferation.
However, cell division in people with obesity is more likely to develop cancer . Hormone-dependent cancers are breast cancer (after menopause), cancer of the endometrium (or of the uterus or body of the uterus), of the ovary, or of the prostate in men. There are also cancers affecting the digestive system induced by this alteration of the metabolic system, especially in subjects with android obesity with fat abundantly present in the abdomen.
This relationship is clear but the causal link not yet fully understood and established: it is believed that the release of chemicals from fat reaching these organs quickly is one of the causes. For example, gastroesophageal reflux disease, which is strongly favored by obesity, is linked to cancers of the esophagus, as is the inflammation of the esophagus more commonly seen in obese people.
But the cause of these cancers of the digestive system is also to be found in insulin, a hormone strongly present in obese people , which promotes the development of colorectal cancer. Insulin is also involved in the development of many other cancers, and obese people produce a lot of it during peaks.
The pancreas, for example, which, due to the amount of sugar swallowed, is forced to overactivity and overproduction of pancreatic cells and insulin, which ultimately damage it. This multiplication of cells again leads to proliferation of cancer cells.
Other cancers are also very strongly linked to obesity : kidney cancer , which promotes high blood pressure in obese people, a known cause of kidney cancer, as are the high insulin levels which still come into play, but also cancers of the gallbladder , for which there is a very strong correlation between obesity and the frequency of gallstones, which are factors of cancer, or even liver cancer, as well as leukaemias and lymphomas.
- Risk of sterility
The presence of a high quantity of fat is a cause of reproduction abnormalities and this by various mechanisms. Being obese first leads to an increased risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome , also caused by type 2 diabetes which is very common in obese people.
Polycystic ovary syndrome makes ovulation, if not nonexistent, of poor quality, so fertilization of the egg does not occur or is less likely to occur. This is often linked to the deregulation of ovarian cycles. It is observed that insulin, present in large quantities in obese individuals , will play a disruptive role in the secretion of sex hormones by the region of the brain called the pituitary gland.
Insulin impacts ovarian cycles by preventing the release of an egg. It is the pituitary gland that will trigger this release via the cyclical production of hormones ( GnRH, FSH and LH ) present in numbers in the blood during the ovulation phase. However, an excess of insulin will disrupt this process and this by deregulating the blood concentration of these sex hormones which become too numerous and therefore present continuously. This causes very irregular ovarian cycles and reproductive abnormalities.
In men, the mobility of spermatozoa is impaired: it is less fluid and their progression is therefore made more difficult. In addition, endocrine disruption induced by obesity reduces the number and quality of sperm. The more fat an individual has, the poorer the quality of their sperm.
Finally, studies show that obese women miscarry more often than others. This is due to the adhesion of the endometrium, which plays a key role in implantation of the fertilized egg. However, the attachment of the egg is compromised in obese women and it detaches prematurely, leading to a miscarriage.
- Risk of dementia
This field of study is quite recent and the results partial, but the correlations between obesity and dementia are rather significant and encourage further research in this field. A risk of dementia is multiplied by 3.5 for people who become obese at the beginning or in the middle of life, during their thirties.
Thus the younger the obesity is contracted, the greater the risk compared to people of the same age who are not obese. Dementia refers to a set of neurodegenerative pathologies and affects the cerebral and central nervous system.
This link is explained by two hypotheses which are still under study. First, the fact that obesity is an inflammatory disease is again among the probable causes. This inflammation attacks many tissues, as we have seen, and in particular the brain.
Another element, the poor food balance observed in the context of a high calorie diet, with an abundant intake of bad fats and insufficient good fats such as omega 3, deemed to be positive in strengthening the neuronal structure of nerve cells and in memory.
Obesity would then be a causal factor because it would directly generate the brain lesions typical of Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid plaques.
Second hypothesis, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders that result from obesity are themselves associated with an increased risk of dementia. Therefore they would be aggravating factors and not causal.
The idea that these pathologies worsen cardiac and cerebral vascular lesions is already well established; they would therefore contribute to worsening the specific lesions observed in degenerative diseases. Obesity would then participate in the aggregation and multiplication of the Tau protein , strongly involved in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, without the precise definition of its role being clearly established.
The implication of the mechanisms therefore remains unclear, but the correlation between overweight and dementia is significant , confirming the idea of a major contribution of obesity in the prevalence of these neurodegenerative diseases to which we add Parkinson’s disease and leucoaraiosis.
Overweight therefore has multiple health repercussions, whether they are cardiovascular, osteo-articular, respiratory, psychic, neuronal, metabolic or endocrine, which can manifest itself in the form of simple dysregulation with a more severe pathology. It is therefore necessary to act quickly if you notice obesity in you (or your loved ones) , so that this excess weight does not harm your health in an irremediable way. However, there are many effective treatments that can help you fight obesity and regain an optimal healthy weight.
How to prevent obesity?
Everyone can in their daily lives to limit as much as possible the unnecessary weight gain linked to bad behavior which, through repetition, can tend towards obesity . For this little habits or tips turn out to be effective.
Indeed, the best way to prevent obesity and avoid being overweight is to adopt healthy daily habits from an early age. They mainly refer to eating habits, but also to lifestyle, behavior …
For this, it is important to receive food education early enough so that these rules become appreciated and voluntary automatisms and not constraints. It is also important that people understand the issues and interests in adopting such eating habits. Being convinced of the short and long term well-being of these eating practices constitutes a great source of motivation.
Regarding the food aspect, we do not teach you anything by reminding you and insisting that you must eat healthy and balanced . This means providing an abundance of legumes, complex carbohydrates to avoid cravings and unsaturated fat, the good fat for the structuring of cells and our neurons.
If you are a person of an ideal or normal weight, you can modulate your food intake with a wider margin of maneuver and allow yourself a few variations without suffering consequences. In this case it is not forbidden to have a richer meal , which will avoid the feeling of deprivation and succumbing thoughtlessly and several times a day to regrettable nibbles or delicacies, which can be fatal.
It is better then to allow yourself a hearty lunch or dinner once in a while, the whole thing being to adapt your caloric absorption well to your energy expenditure.
This leads us to physical exercise : it is common knowledge that practicing regular physical activity helps prevent weight gain, and the word regular is important. It is not a question of doing intensive sport, but moving a little every day and depending on what we have eaten is rather wise.
The benefits and advantages of exercising in limiting weight gain are proven: clinical studies show that walking 1 km reduces the risk of becoming obese by 5% . In other words, increasing your distance by 1 km results in a reduction in risk of 5% each time. So why not do the last mile to your home by getting off a station before?
You can also, for example, go get your bread by running by making a small detour. Practicing a physical activity or simply walking a little every day are therefore one of the most effective ways to fight obesity. So we recommend 30 minutes of walking, but 15 minutes of walking is enough to already limit the risk of weight gain.
Likewise, you don’t have to run a marathon every day to lose weight already, you can choose a quick 15 minute run every other day to start and then try to make it daily to maximize your chances of losing. weight . The important thing is to try to be active every day, whether through intensive sport or physical exercise at home or outdoors. The very fact of doing and carrying errands on foot is already a source of energy expenditure, just like getting off a station before the metro or bus to walk home either – not forgetting to climb the stairs – can also be an alternative. .
To prevent obesity , you have to educate your eating behavior and learn to cook yourself dishes is ideal. Preventing obesity also refers to food education for children, which the earlier it is received, the more the risk of gaining weight is repelled because these habits will be anchored reflexes. You also need to move a little every day to get your body used to spending what it absorbs.
Treatments for weight loss
This refers to the way in which obesity is prevented, but by generalizing and systematizing these behaviors. Indeed, by being already overweight or obese, the gravity of the situation means that these habits must become automatisms applied in a drastic and radical manner . This is why before losing weight, you have to be mentally prepared.
Understand yourself, by consulting a psychologist
Thanks to psychotherapy, you will be able to put into words the “why” of your obesity , and this is an essential part of achieving rapid weight loss. Often the part of a conscious or unconscious trauma, recent or to be found in the earliest childhood, a stress or a particular event which triggered this excess eating.
Thus, it is not uncommon to see impressive weight loss in just a few months, when a stressed, depressed or highly anxious individual regains self-confidence and the joy of living that accompanies positive thoughts!
If this is inherited from family eating habits, seeing a psychologist can also help you detach yourself from these intrinsic mechanisms. So do not hesitate to consult a psychologist who can help you change your bad habits more easily to definitively overcome obesity.
Lose weight the “natural” way
Now let’s take action! First there is the natural method which consists of following an advanced nutritional diet, adapted to its metabolism in order to re-educate it.
This hypocaloric diet must be followed daily and respected to the letter; no deviation is allowed. You can be accompanied by a nutritionist who will be able to prescribe the weight loss method most suited to your metabolism. Click here to find the answers to the question ” How to lose weight?” ”
Lose weight with medical treatment
This may be accompanied by taking treatment or medication for obesity , namely weight loss drugs that are fat burners . These drugs for weight loss are aids, levers of acceleration that effectively accompany weight loss by allowing the fat swallowed are not assimilated.
But in no case should we think that by simply swallowing them, the obese person will lose weight while continuing his high calorie diet. Such a drastic and low-calorie diet is necessary, the mind also plays an important part. Beating obesity just happens faster, but losing weight doesn’t get easier!
Lose Weight and Overcome Obesity Through Surgery
Finally, for people with extreme obesity, obesity surgery may be considered. Indeed, bariatric surgeries are remedies for people with morbid obesity putting their life in danger, who have no other choice but to act at the risk of losing their life.
By reducing the size of the stomach, people undergoing these surgeries will drastically reduce the amounts of food by 40% to 50%, and thus decrease their calorie intake.
In addition, some types of food do not pass which enhances weight loss. If the effectiveness of these surgeries for obesity are great, they are however reserved for extreme situations.