The smiles were always popular but the snow white smile became popular not too long ago. Well, it is nice to see white, perfect teeth of the person you are talking to. But have you ever though about the efforts required for obtaining such smile? Let’s us find the details in the article below.
Professional whiteness – is the right thing
Teeth whitening were initially more experiment than medical treatment. Most part of such attempts took in XIX were related to nonliving teeth. The first whitening materials were oxalic acid, chlorine, ammonia and even potassium cyanide. These materials are quite dangerous and require great caution when are applied. The organic part of the nonliving tooth was affected with several oxidants. The sulfuric acid was often applied as slackening agent.
The whitening agent was put onto the vestibular surface of the tooth and some time was needed until it would penetrate through the enamel. Gradually the method of chemical whitening with the help of hydrogen peroxide was made and the first article describing it was issued in about 1847.
The chemical whitening
The process of chemical whitening of teeth may be described in as follows: the hydrogen peroxide is decomposed into water and atomic oxygen: H2O2 → H2O + О. As the hydrogen peroxide is very unstable material the modern ways of teeth whitening apply the carbamide peroxide and urea peroxide both of which also liberate atomic oxygen as a decomposition product. This method is based on oxidation processes occurring due to affection of the atomic oxygen onto natural teeth tissues.
The intense of the teeth color is defined by the number of pair carbon compounds C=C. The oxidation leads to more simple single carbon compound formation thus providing less pigmentation i.e. teeth whitening. The result of the whitening is the change of the enamel and dentine tint. This process affects the pigments situated deep in the tooth tissues. These pigments turn into transparent materials due to the affection of the whitening agent and thus change the tooth color.
In 1918 the principle of teeth whitening activation with the help of heat radiation was revealed and it is successfully applied even nowadays. The high intense luminous radiation causes sharp rise of the temperature in the hydrogen peroxide solution thus leading to rapid chemical processes acceleration.
At the same time the scientist noticed that such method is harmful for the enamel as the acid contributes to the tooth tissues destruction. Moreover the whitening gel was heat up with the light of halogen lamp in order to accelerate procedure. As a result there appeared such side effects as demineralization and the enamel fragility as well as caries development provocation.
The “office” whitening
The method of teeth whitening with the help of medical lasers was invented in the beginning of 90-s. The further development of this direction led to appearance of the modern power whitening systems. The procedure of the chemical whitening is performed stationary in the dentist office. The process is repeatedly accelerated due to the external power affection by the use of luminous, infrared, plasma and laser facilities. These “office” methods enable to shorten the time of teeth whitening up to one hour.
The efficiency of the whitening procedure varies from one dentist to another. This may be caused by the contents of the whitening material, its concentration and the capacity of the light source. Averagely the quality whitening systems provide considerable changes of the color for 5-6 tints according to generally accepted color scale.
Resistibility and duration of the result are up to individual features of the body and the personal hygiene, prophylaxis and how the patient cares about him/her self in general. Sometimes dentists recommend combining professional care with the personal one which is longer but smoother one in order to get optimal results. Usually the effect of the chemical whitening persists from one to three years and then the previous color of the teeth recovers as the body tries to restore naturally “programmed” condition of the teeth tissues.
Teeth of yellow, brown or orange tints are easier to whiten. There are three basic colors of the enamel – yellow, yellowish-white and bluish-white. As for the tints, there are more than 20 of them (from grey to brown).
Preparation for “office” whitening
Preparation of the teeth for whitening procedure is similar to the preparation of the room to the repairs.
Tooth fillings! One of the chemical whitening terms is the absence of the artificial coverings on the front surface of the teeth. Such materials and tooth fillings especially cannot be whitened. Thus the teeth are to be refined to the filling color or the teeth are whitened to the tint required and then the tooth filling is to be changed. Otherwise when teeth start to darken again its filling will remain white (they commonly have at least five years warranty life).
Sensitivity! Another term is the absence of the tooth filling defects and unprotected dentine surfaces that may cause unwanted sensitivity.
Odontolith, caries, scurf! It is also required to have all professional mouth cavity hygiene procedures: to get rid of caries, deposits and scurf.
Food dyes! It is advised not to intake various dyeing foodstuffs and drinks (black tea, coffee) within 48 hours after the procedure.
Home whitening method
In 1960 there appeared various home whitening systems allowing holding the teeth whitening procedure at home. At that time rinsers based on the hydrogen peroxide were quite popular. They were used as antiseptics in gum diseases and soft tissues inflammations.
Dr. Klusmier an observant orthodontist has noticed that after the use of these rinsers in mouthguards the teeth are not only being treated but whitened as well. He used Gly-oside when treated patient with mouth cavity trauma. As the gum healed he noted that teeth turned whiter. Then Dr. Klusmier started to offer this whitening method to his patients and their families. He registered that the whitening took 6 months and that lower jaw teeth were less whitened as a result. Gradually the home whitening method was formed.
Various whitening gels based on the combination of hydrogen and carbamide peroxides were developed later. So called “home whitening” is the most widespread nowadays. An individual plastic mouthguard that repeats the denture form is being produced. The whitening gel packed in the does syringes is put into the mouthguard.
The gel exposure is up to its concentration: from 30 minutes upt to several hours. The standard whitening scheme is: 14-20 days by 6-8 hour (usual night mouthguard use). Moreover there are also rapid whitening schemes (3-7 days). This method enables to get quite enduring affection of the atomic oxygen onto the teeth tissues and considerable whitening effect as well.
This method is used when too dark teeth are whitened: home whitening is being combined with the special procedures in the hospital. This method whitens usually smile zone. It is quite long process requiring 3-4 visits a month.
Whitening stripes: from canine to canine
Most part of dentists considers that there is no need to whiten teeth located after the fourth one and this idea is also reflected by the recently appeared new system of the home whitening based on the use of whitening stripes “White stripes”. The total whitening period equals to the mouthguard use. Its principal distinction from individual mouthguards is in its simplicity when used and more noticeable effect within the first days of the use. Dentists suppose that stripes whiten teeth not far than the fourth tooth, i.e from canine to canine. Such situation doesn’t always satisfy the patient needs therefore many patients contact the dentist on the 10 day of the stripes used in order to correct and combine stripes with the other whitening systems.
Professional teeth cleaning
Those are not going to expose their teeth to hydrogen peroxide affection there is a simple whitening procedure. Professional teeth cleaning enables to remove tooth deposits and scurf and provide thorough clean of the interdental areas. Hygienist holds such type of the cleaning. This method is considered to be the safest for teeth and is similar to the tea deposit removal from the porcelain cup. Teeth are cleaned with the spurt of the water under the pressure. The water contains some soda that makes teeth whiter. Another name of the procedure is Air Flow. Professional cleaning is made without anesthesia. But if there are chips and scratches which are sensitive to the various water pressure or temperature the local anesthesia may be applied (with the help of aroma freezing gel).
The similar effect may be obtained by the use of the ultrasonic device enabling to remove tooth deposits with the help of the ultrasound.
However the experts prevent about possible complications: first of all we should beware the “over whitening” effect when teeth became chalklike and cease to shine. Secondly, demineralization may occur, it means that useful minerals were removed from the teeth with the deposits. In this case a course of certain recovery therapy is to be held.
Teeth of different colors – it’s a life!
The color of teeth we see is formed of the amount and quality of the light reflected from the denture. Thus in order to increase the teeth brightness it is required to eliminate the obstacles for the complete light reflection it means to clean teeth with toothbrush or increase the area of the reflecting surface by changing old darkened tooth filling for instance.
It happens quite often that the use of certain medication in the childhood leads to the resistant change of the teeth color (for instance so caller tetracycline teeth). Quite often the tooth trauma or its canal treatment as well as breakdown of tooth formation and developing may also be the cause of changing teeth color.
Tooth enamel is constantly exposed to various dye stuffs contained in foods, drinks, medications, tobacco and cosmetics. As a result so called discoloration (the change of tooth color) occurs. Dye stuffs may deposit onto the surface (external coloration) or penetrate into the hard tooth tissues (internal coloration).
Milk-white teeth color is a feature of the thyroid gland increased activity. Dark-yellow with the red tint on the chewing surface of the molar testifies about the adrenal hyper function.
In case teeth turned to yellow ones than the reason most probably is in the increased use of the strong tea, coffee and cigarettes.
Yellow-brown color is the sign of the endemic fluorosis that occurs in case there are excesses of the fluorine that appears in the body with the water for instance.
Teeth may be even pink ones! In the worst case this is a symptom of cholera. And in the best case – such tint occurs after the use of lots of candies with pink dyestuffs.
Red teeth are also not quite rare thing to see. Dentists note 2 causes: whether it is the sign of dysentery or the patient poisoned with the coal acid. The way to get rid of such teeth color is to treat the disease.
Brown color is the sign of toxic jaundice or the chronic lead poisoning. However the most often (fortunately though) cause of this color is the love to chocolate.
Green teeth also take place in case the patient experiences chronic sublimate and brass salts. In this case it is advised to apply for a new job.
Bluish tint reflects the long use of the iron containing drugs or its excess in the water. Blue-black teeth – is the natural effect after intake of such berries as bilbeeries and melancarpous ashberries. These berries are very useful and the teeth color will recover after the common use of the toothbrush.
Whitening without medical direction – we like it!
According to the experts there are still no medical directions to teeth whitening and sometimes there is even only little info about clinical tests results of the whitening procedures. It is unclear whether it exists at all or not. Nevertheless the doctors beware: any whitening is prohibited in case you experience periodontosis, allergy for the hydrogen peroxide or you are within breast-feeding period. “Home whitening” is not applied when wisdom teeth cut. Moreover tooth whitening is prohibited in case the patient is below 18 years of the age and this is supported by the law. However private clinics usually break it readily and without difficulty. According to the practice any whitening method appears to cause a range of problems.
Be careful, enamel! The experts often compare the teeth whitening with hair decoloration. However these procedures even in case they provide perfect cosmetic effect with the use of the up to day whitening materials are slightly to be useful.
Active whitening in the dentist’s office implies that dentist acid-etches teeth at first and then covers them with strong peroxide gel and heats it by any way in order to accelerate the reaction. So whitening is first of all is the exposure of aggressive substances that washing out organic substances from the teeth and refining enamel thus making it fragile, porous and absorbing any pigments.
Obscurity! No one may forecast to what degree your teeth will whiten. Every case is individual one. First of all dentist will define the natural color of the teeth according to special color scale and show approximately what color the teeth will get after the whitening procedure. Commonly the whitening for two tints is reported, for example from grey to more bright grey. However the final result is up to the initial color: it is impossible to change brunette into bright blonde after the first decoloration and the smile of confirmed smoker and coffee fan into snow white Hollywood one.
Time and money! Laser whitening is very expensive. You will need several procedures and these expensive things will require lots of money as well. At the same time, you will have to repeat the procedure in one year again.
Whitening at the dentist office doesn’t mean painless one! The procedure of the “office whitening” may be quite painful. The gel used here contains 35-50% of the hydrogen peroxide in contrast to home whitening gel that contains only 10% of the hydrogen peroxide. The use of the peroxide for the active whitening may cause burns. That is why the dentist has to provide maximal protection for the patient’s mouth cavity and gums with special films and paddings. The gel may make teeth very sensitive to cool or hot and cause gum burning when affecting the enamel.
At home doesn’t mean fast! In case you decide to choose “home whitening” you should know that dentist recommend this procedure only to patient and exact people. In case of improper use of the gel you may get a burn of mucous.
Antibiotics are not whitened! The owners of so called “tetracycline” teeth (those used lots of tetracycline and other antibiotics in childhood) will more likely get no effect of the whitening. The medication is accumulated in the body and changes the teeth color gradually – they are evenly getting yellow from the inside. There is no sense in whitening such teeth.
Cosmetologists do not recommend! Professional cosmetologists remind that in 40 years too white teeth emphasize the fading skin, not very shiny eyes and passing along with the pigment away the hair color. Some of your friend will surely ask: “Did you make false teeth?” and this won’t be caused by his or her maliciousness but by the fact that the person in ages simply cannot have such white teeth. Cosmetologists recommend whitening teeth only for one tint and dentists advice constantly to care thoroughly for your mouth cavity. In such combination the smile will be natural and you won’t need additional expensive procedures.
Beautiful smile. Of course we want to whiten teeth in such way that there will be no need to change them for false ones. But all whitening methods use peroxide gels and damage teeth. Moreover, yellowish enamel is firmer than the white one and according to some dentists it is a real crime to whiten it.
What shall we do? Before you decide to whiten teeth read this article once again and consult with your dentist. And the better variant is to visit dentist regularly, keep your health and smile a lot. Beautiful smile doesn’t mean ideal whiteness of all 32 teeth but your soul and your frank attitude to the others.
Black teeth – it’s Japanese!
In XVI-XVII centuries there was a tradition in Japan: geishas as well as married women blackened their teeth to be beautiful. Before wife entered the husband’s house she visited 7 relatives who provided her with a dye containing an iron and so the procedure of the first blackening started. Its importance was stressed with the proverb: “As the black color always remains black without changes so the relations between husband and wife will remain similar”. “Blackened teeth were the proof of the fact that the woman swore in eternal devotion to her husband.
Today Japanese do not crave for having snow white smile. They do not whiten teeth and consider beautiful everything natural. Thus even they out in a false tooth they try to make it a complete copy of the natural one with all slightly visible cracks.
Whitening tooth pastes – it’s so English!
British scientists have published the results of the independent study of the whitening tooth pastes this year. They have concluded that most of them do not provide the whitening effect that is marked at the package.
The advertisement of the most part of whitening toothpastes promises that teeth color turns pearly white and the smile irresistible one thanks to the whitening substances. At the same time nobody considers that the cause of the teeth color change may differ and depend up to external and internal factors. And in case it is sometimes impossible for the office whitening to provide the positive effect then what should we say about the paste, and especially we should remember that the tooth brush is used two times a day for maximum 5-10 minutes?
Moreover most of the whitening pastes contain abrasives and detergents that though should contribute to the removal of various colored deposits while cleaning teeth. However not all the parts of the tooth are available for the tooth brush exposure. Furthermore abrasives destruct the enamel slowly but implacably. Thus the dentists recommend rotating the use of the whitening tooth paste with the common one.
In case the enamel is thin and sensitive, fang are opened and gums are inflamed then it is not advised to use the whitening tooth paste at all. There is also no sense in buying means of hygienic care of your teeth containing over 0,1% of the hydrogen peroxide.
Whitening chewing gums is a myth!
According to the advertisement whitening chewing gums help to “maintain natural teeth whiteness”. English consumer magazine “Which?” contacted British association of dentist with the question to provide a comment for this statement. However the experts refused to approve or disapprove whitening features of this product. There were no clinical tests of the whitening chewing gums at least in England thus the adds about the whitening effect of the gums is nothing but the fantasy of the copywriter created the commercial.