Ozone (O3) is an unstable gas, which breaks down into oxygen very quickly and hence, cannot be bottled, but must be generated fresh when it is needed. The half-life of ozone at 68° F., in approximately 40 minutes, which means that in 40 minutes half the ozone will have dissipated. Ozone is generated basically in four ways:
Ozone is created naturally when ultraviolet radiation from the sun contacts the oxygen in the earth’s atmosphere. In industry an ultraviolet bulb is used, which produces low concentrations compared with other methods. Per watt of power, ultraviolet generation produces about one third less ozone than plasma generation.
Also, the bulb loses its efficacy rather quickly. However, this method has the advantage of producing almost no nitric oxide if the input air is clean and free of pollutants. Ultraviolet radiation from the sun passing through the polluted atmosphere of the urban environment breaks down any of the nitrogen compounds and hydrocarbon exhausts into nitric oxide and various other toxic components, with ozone as a byproduct.
The ozone itself is not toxic in these low concentrations, only the gases with which it is combined. Unfortunately, because it is used as an “indicator gas” of overall pollution (as it is easier to measure than the hundreds of other smog components), it has been labeled by much of the media as a toxic gas synonymous with smog.
Electrical sparks are passed through an oxygen-rich environment, e.g. lightning or any electrical device, which produces sparks. This method is often misleadingly called, cold spark, as the sparks are far from cold. Many room air purifiers frequently use this method. Sparks are discharged between two metallic electrodes, through which a fan passes air.
This method is not suitable for medical ozone generation because 1) in ambient air, nitric oxide is formed, and 2) minute amounts of metal ions, produced by sparks arcing between the electrodes, are released into the oxygen flow, making it unsuitable for medical purposes. For room air purification, however, these units may be suitable for the nitric oxide breaks down rapidly within several feet and the metal ions dissipate rapidly. To avoid this problem, some units use plasma tubes.
An ionic flow is induced in a glass cathode tube filled with a noble gas, which is highly electrified. This unit is enveloped in a second tube, usually 316 L grade steel, through which pure oxygen is passed. This is the second electrode, which acts only as a ground, and does not receive any direct current, hence avoiding arcing and metal ion pollution. The flow of plasma within the tube induces the oxygen to reform as O3.
This method uses quartz glass tubes through which the oxygen flows, with copper wire wound around the inner and outer tubes. A high frequency voltage is passed through the coils, producing a strong electromagnetic field (EMF). A fan or heat sink is needed to dissipate the heat, as heat destroys ozone. Quartz glass is required due to the possible contamination caused by heating regular glass to high temperatures. Possible EMF side effects need to be further investigated.
It is the cold plasma method, which is most effectively used for medical applications, as high concentrations can be produced without contamination from the generator’s components, at a fairly reasonable price. Due to the low voltage and temperatures used in this method, quartz glass is not required.
The fact that many substances are reactive to the powerful oxidizing effect of ozone is the primary challenge in manufacturing an instrument suitable for medical use. Many ozone generators allow some foreign ions into the output gas unless the tubes are made of surgical steel. Even if a non-reactive substance such as high silica glass is used in the generation tubes, the output gas must still pass through some type of tubing, humidifier, and cannula or syringe, which may oxidize or release minute amounts of foreign molecules into the output gas. Ideally, for this reason, non-reactive substances such as 316 L steel, Norprene tubing, borosilicate glass humidifiers, steel or glass spargers (diffusers) and Teflon or Kynar fittings are used.
Cost is a major factor in ozone generator construction. In medical applications, the instrument is usually not in operation for more than several minutes, so foreign ions that may be in the output gas are so few in number as to likely be far less of a health hazard than avoiding ozone treatment if it is needed.
The benefit derived from removing toxic substances from the blood will likely far exceed the possible detrimental effect of the few new radicals that may be introduced, that is, if done using proper nutritional supplementation and according to the proper protocols. However, it is desirable that the ozone generating chambers be of the highest-grade materials available.
Ozone contact with aluminum and nylon should definitely be avoided. Contact with PVC and low grade steel should be avoided for medical use when possible. Polypropylene humidifiers are non-reactive with ozone at room temperature (below 114° F.), although ozonated water, if stored in them for several hours, may pick up molecules from the plastic.
Also, certain gases are vented from many plastics even without exposure to ozone. Regardless of the materials used in construction, it is unlikely that the side effects of using even a mediocre quality ozone instrument could come anywhere close to the extreme toxicity and frequently fatal side effects of chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, the only FDA approved cancer treatments.
Perhaps if it means the difference between getting needed treatment or not, a less expensive unit, constructed of less ozone-resistant substances may be an appropriate choice. Extreme care should be taken to purchase an instrument manufactured and sold by people with high integrity and medical knowledge.
The measurement of ozone concentration is a challenge as there are at least six variables affecting output, and application. These variables are:
1) Voltage applied, including cycles per second.
2) Flow rate of the input gas through the generating tubes.
3) Humidity of the input gas.
4) Temperature of the input gas.
5) Concentration of oxygen in the input gas.
6) Pressure, including barometric pressure.
Thus, in the tropics at sea level, the ozone output of a unit may be vastly different than if the same machine were operated in the Swiss Alps. Without the incorporation of an ozone-measuring device costing thousands of dollars, no manufacturer can give more than a rough estimate of how much ozone is actually being produced from ambient air at a given moment in a given place. A manufacturer may measure the ozone produced on a given day at a given temperature, humidity, flow rate, oxygen concentration and voltage, then extrapolate to estimate intermediary positions according to the voltage and flow meters.
With the use of bottled oxygen, which is always used in medical applications, the accuracy is increased. Yet, the oxygen that is released from the tank into the generating chamber expands and cools at different rates in different climates and at different barometric pressures, affecting ozone output. Hence, one still has no way of knowing the exact concentration.
Even the German Hansler units when tested with an ozone analyzer, were found to not only provide an erratic concentration of ozone, but also to decline markedly in output after 10 minutes of constant operation. However, new cold plasma units being developed in the United States provide a steady, reliable source of ozone, which doesn’t decrease in concentration even when operated constantly for two hours.
When a top quality medical ozone generator using compressed, medical oxygen is taken from sea level to 4,000 feet, the ozone production drops almost 20%. Charts giving approximate conversion rates for various barometric pressures are available. With the addition of a built-in memory chip into which the current barometric pressure and other variables are entered, the accuracy can be brought to within 5% of the true concentration, assuming a perfectly accurate flow meter is used.
Most flow meters aren’t accurate below .5 Liters per minute (LPM) and below, the range most often used in medical application. The use of a pediatric regulator, calibrated from 1/16 – 1 LPM, increases the accuracy.
The effect of climatic temperature changes is generally much less significant than changes in pressure and fluctuating house current. House voltage may vary from 110 to 117 volts in the course of 20 minutes, altering the ozone output by 20%. Due to these factors, in determining a unit’s ozone concentration one knows only the voltage and flow rate and arrives at an estimated concentration. Fortunately, this problem of exact calibration may not be critically important.
When it was discovered that concentrations over 80 ìg/ml, where when injected directly into a vein, cause lysing (destruction) of blood cells, many felt that it became unnecessary to produce instruments with this high a concentration. Most practitioners using pure oxygen produce no more than a maximum of 27 to 45 ìg/ml at sea level. Only in the external treatment of skin conditions such as burns, decubitous ulcers, infections and fistulas are concentrations as high as 80 ìg/ml used.
Even those practitioners using Major Autohemotherapy (MajAHT) a process in which blood is withdrawn, ozonated outside the body, and then returned to the body by intravenous drip, said that concentrations under 40 ìg/ml produce excellent results, and the high concentrations used formerly are not needed and possibly dangerous.
Some practitioners receive excellent results with concentrations of only 4 ìg/ml. Precise concentrations need not be known; concentrations accurate to within 5 -10 ìg/ml are generally considered sufficient for most methods. Low concentrations range from 0-40 ìg/ml, and medium from 40-80 ìg/ml and high from 80-100 ìg/ml.
Most practitioners are using low, or low-medium concentrations (under 50 ìg/ml), as these values produce excellent results with negligible or no side effects. High concentrations are usually used on external infections, burns, hemorrhaging wounds, or fistulas. High concentrations seem to pose no danger when used externally.
The most common methods of administration of ozone are:
a) Ambient room air purifiers
b) Filtered through oil
a) Ozonated water
b) Ozonated oil
3) Sauna/Body suit
a) Absorbed through the skin
b) Combined with use of DMSO
a) Ozonated oil
b) Localized application
a) Minor autohemotherapy
b) Major autohemotherapy
c) Direct injection into vein
d) Hemorrhoidal vein
e) Directly into tumor
Most physicians caution against the use of ozone therapy in the following conditions:
1) After recent heart attack
3) Recent internal bleeding including menses
5) Cramping or spasms
7) Alcoholic intoxication
8) Allergy to ozone
If at any time during the use of ozone pressure is felt in the chest, indicating the change in hydrostatic pressure in the lungs, treatment should be discontinued immediately. The pressure dissipates shortly without harm. Ozone amplifies the effect of drugs and supplements due to increased cellular absorption. Hence, the dosage of other medications may need to be dramatically reduced to avoid overdosage.
Ozone should never be used in the presence of ether, as the combination of these two compounds is explosive. Nothing in this material should be taken as a recommendation or prescription for medical treatment. Ozone treatment can only be carried out under a physician’s guidance.