The body heals itself by primary intent. It heals itself in a sure, sensible, practical, reasonable, and observable manner. The healer within can be approached from without. Man possesses a potential for recovery through the physiological homeostatic innate intelligence of the human structure. This recovery potential, with which he has been naturally endowed, and which is his natural birthright, merely waits for the trained hand, the knowing mind, and the caring heart of the trained individual to bring it to physical manifestation, allowing health to come forth; this is man’s natural heritage. It allows the same force which created the body to heal the body and allow it to operate unimpeded. This benefits man, both individually and collectively, and also the physician or therapist who has rendered the service. –George Goodhart, Jr. DC, FICC Diplomate, ICAK, and founder of Applied Kinesiology.

Kinesiology: n. The study of muscles and their movements, esp. as applied to physical conditioning. [Gk. kinesis, movement (kinein, to move) + -logy.] Kinesiologists–those who discourse on movement–combining anatomy, the science of structure of the body, with physiology, the science of function of the body, to produce kinesiology, the science of movement of the body. The human brain is a wondrous computer, linked with a universal energy field, that knows far more than it knows it knows. Kinesiology is a well-established science of communicating with another person’s nervous system or “database of consciousness,” by testing an all-or-none muscle response to stimuli.

The kinesiologist uses the muscle tests to find the imbalances, tensions and blockages in the body, then makes corrections and rebalances the nervous system, then finally tests the muscles again to verify changes. Kinesiology is showing enormous success in dentistry, chiropractic, and allopathic medicine, and is now being used to observe the tooth-body connection. The kinesiologic response reflects a capacity of the human central nervous system to differentiate between life supportive and life-destructive patterns, to distinguish positive from negative stimuli, anabolic (life-enhancing) from catabolic (life-consuming) and, most dramatically, true from false.

It is also possible to test a person’s intolerance and stress to things in the environment, i.e. over-sensitivity reactions (physical and mental). All attitudes, thoughts and beliefs are connected with various acupuncture energy meridians, to all of the body’s organs, including the teeth.

Specific acupuncture points are linked with specific attitudes, and the meridian, which serve, in turn, as the energy channel to specific muscles and body organs. If you hold a negative thought in mind, a very specific muscle will go weak; if you replace the thought with a positive idea the same muscle will instantly go strong. Kinesiology can tap into the inner wisdom that can discriminate healthy from unhealthy, and can discriminate true from false. Ideological validity can be appraised as an innate quality in any subject.

The connection between mind and body is immediate, so the body’s responses shift and change from instant to instant in response to one’s train of thought and emotions. All that is really necessary is to expose oneself to a high-energy field and one’s inner attitudes will spontaneously begin to change. A disease process is evidence that something is amiss in the workings of the mind, and that is where the power to effect a change resides. Treating an illness as a physical process only, does not correct the origin of the dysfunction and is palliative rather than curative. When the mind is dominated by a negative worldview, the result is a repetition of minute changes in energy flows to the various organs.

The subtle field of physiology is affected in all of its functions, mediated by electron transfer, neural hormonal balance, nutritional status, etc. Eventually, an accumulation of minute changes becomes discernible through measurement techniques such as electron microscopy, magnetic imaging, X-ray or biochemical analysis. But by the time these changes are detectable, the disease process is advanced in its self-sustaining resonances.

The invisible universe of thought and attitude becomes visible as a consequence of the body’s habitual response. It is the persistence and repetition of the stimulus, which results in the observable disease process. The stimulus that sets off the process may be so subtle that it escapes detection. Physical and mental health are attendant upon positive attitudes, whereas ill health, both physical and mental, is associated with such negative attitudes as resentment, jealousy, hostility, self-pity, fear, anxiety, etc.

Chronic immersion in these emotions results in physical or mental ill health and a gross weakening of one’s personal power. Physiologically speaking, with attitude, one chooses between anabolic endorphins or catabolic adrenaline. It is possible for a lifelong affliction to heal rapidly with a mere shift of attitude; but though this shift may seem to have occured in a split second, it may have taken years of inner preparation. Unless the basic attitude, which is causing the energy imbalance, is corrected though, the illness tends to return.

The Triad Of Health

The triad of health displays the three basic causes of health problems. They are structural, chemical, and mental, with structural as the base of the triad. Literally, all health problems, whether functional or pathological, are involved with one part or all of the triad. The physician who is aware of the triad of health, and evaluates every patient for all three sides, increases his/her ability to find the basic underlying cause of a patient’s health problem.

Unfortunately, most professionals in the health care system do not thoroughly evaluate for influences of the different aspects of the triad on the patient’s chief complaint. Rather, they tend to stay on the side of the triad associated with their specialty. Each side of the triad is represented by one or more specialties in both natural health care and allopathic medicine.

Often, individuals in a specialty attempt to influence the other two sides of the triad by treatment in their area of expertise, creating a lopsided triangle. The efforts may be symptomatically effective, but they often do not give attention to the basic underlying cause of the patient’s chief complaint.

Interplay Between Sides

Throughout applied kinesiology, the triad of health is an important principle evaluated in all types of conditions. It is of paramount importance because nearly all conditions, especially chronic ones, involve all three sides of the triad. The physician must consider all possibilities so that s/he is not treating secondary effects rather than primary causes. Almost always, the more chronic a condition, the more involved it is with the three sides of the triad.

Even a simple acute condition, such as a sprained ankle–which is obviously structural only–can ultimately affect other structures throughout the body if not treated correctly, and eventually affect the chemical and mental sides of the triad. Treating the sprained ankle correctly entails follow-up evaluation for structural balance and normal nerve function in the foot after the obvious tissue damage from the sprain has been repaired.

Structure Affecting Chemical

What follows is the hypothetical background of a typical chronic health problem, which illustrates the effect that structural influences can have on chemical ones: One year previously the patient sprained an ankle, which apparently healed successfully. Unknown to the patient or his physician, there were subluxations of the foot and ankle, which improperly stimulated the proprioceptors when standing, walking, or running.

This improper proprioception caused structural stress in the suboccipital area as a result of improper facilitation and inhibition of the upper trapezious, sternocleidomastoid, and other muscles active during walking and running. The patient began noticing mild suboccipital headaches, but they would go away after a good night’s rest. The continued imbalanced pull of the muscles into the cranium eventually caused cranial faults, which interfered with normal vagus nerve activity. This, in turn, reduced the secretion of hydrochloric acid.

The reduction of hydrochloric acid depressed production of pancreatic enzymes, and poor digestion developed, with resulting toxicity. This weakening of the stomach meridian could cause an imbalance in the related teeth (upper 1st and 2nd molars, bottom bicuspids) and started degeneration there as well. As the patient grew more toxic, the headaches became more generalized and severe in intensity, to the point that now they’re constant.

This snowballing effect is a relatively common occurrence in many types of health problems. Already the relatively simple structural problem has affected the chemical side of the triad of health. If this patient is allowed to become chronic with severe headaches, s/he will probably do poorly at work and possibly have family problems, which ultimately would affect the mental side of the triad. Doctors specializing in one side of the triad can fail to find the primary cause because treatment directed to one side of the triad may obtain only partial results.

A chiropractor may examine this patient, find the suboccipital stress, and give partial results with upper cervical adjustments, which relieve that portion of the patient’s headache. A nutritionist might find the gut problem, administer hydrochloric acid and enzymes, and start a detoxification program. This would also give results but not of a permanent nature. There are many doors for entering the patient’s health care arena. The best choice is to have a system that evaluates all three sides of the triad of health, to determine when corrections are obtained and if the body is capable of maintaining the corrections.

The chiropractor who reduced the headache with cervical manipulation would find that as soon as the patient walked, the corrections obtained would be lost. The nutritionist used nutrition as an allopathic approach and did nothing to eliminate the cause of the reduced hydrochloric acid secretion, which, in turn, caused the lack of enzymes and toxic gut. The dynamic evaluation that finds the problems and then evaluates the patient to determine if corrections are maintained is the answer to ultimately finding the primary cause, which is in the foot and ankle. The procedures in AK evaluation can easily track down the foot involvement, which is the underlying cause of the problem.

Chemical Affecting Structural

Chief complaint: low back pain. In this case there is no significant history to be obtained from the patient. He denies injuring himself and states the backache “just seemed to start.” He used to get relief periodically, but now it is there all the time. As with all these examples, the patient has a digestive disturbance that he chooses not to discuss with the examiner, or fails to recognize as a problem.

This patient has a very poor diet, high in refined carbohydrates and low in roughage. Over a period of time, he has developed a malabsorption syndrome from mucous congestion between the villi (thread-like structures that absorb nutrients) of the small intestine. The small intestine is associated with the abdominal muscles, as well as the quadriceps group (The 3rd molars are on the small intestine meridian).

The abdominal muscles are very important to anterior pelvic stabilization. When weak, they allow the pelvis to rotate anteriorly, increasing the lordotic curve of the lumbar spine and jamming the facet articulations. The oblique abdominal muscles also give pelvic stabilization to prevent twist, important in preventing sacroiliac dysfunction.

A chiropractor can manipulate the lower spine and pelvis with some success. An orthopedist may brace the pelvis with some success. But the key is to find out why there is structural imbalance of the pelvis and lumbar spine in the first place.

The only satisfactory approach to this condition is to find the bowel (lower 1st & 2nd molars–upper bicuspids) involvement and return the diet to normal. It will probably be necessary to directly treat the digestive system as well. Subjects with musculoskeletal/dental symptoms and signs are more apt to be consuming more refined carbohydrate foodstuffs than those free of such clinical findings. Returning nutrition to normal leads to a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal/dental problems.

Chemical Affecting Mental

Chief complaint: depression. A similar example to that above is an individual on the same poor diet, high in carbohydrates and low in roughage. With the malabsorption syndrome he develops relative hypoglycemia, which is a common condition causing depression. Counseling or medication may give temporary relief, but again, until the digestive disturbance is corrected, the primary cause has not been treated.

There are many other ways that the chemical side can affect the mental. Doctors who work with orthomolecular psychiatry have found that food additives cause certain susceptible people to develop psychiatric problems. Often when chemical affects mental, there is also a structural component. Most people who are extremely susceptible to food additives have frank allergies, in turn causing increased susceptibility to chemicals, and finally causing mental health problems. Another common condition is toxic metals from dental appliances causing mental disturbances.

Mental Affecting Chemical

Chief complaint: menopausal symptoms of hot flashes and severe fatigue. The patient has severe emotional stress due to coping with an alcoholic husband, and the same digestive disturbance used in the other illustrations is also present. The patient feels the digestive disturbance is secondary to the emotional stress, which she does not choose to discuss with the examiner.

From another physician, she is receiving hormones for her menopausal symptoms, which is treating the condition on a secondary basis. Normally, at menopause the adrenal glands increase their production of estrogen for a maintenance function. In this woman’s case, they are incapable of doing so because of relative hypoadrenia, secondary to the mental stress. The relative hypoadrenia is also the cause of the fatigue, which is listed as part of the chief complaint. Recognition of the various forms of stress and their effects on the adrenal gland, gives the doctor knowledgeable about the interplay of the triad of health the ability to find the primary cause of the menopausal symptoms and fatigue, regardless of the patient’s willingness to discuss them.

Unless the primary emotional disturbance is removed, results will not be complete. Interestingly, as the adrenal glands begin to function in an improved manner, the patient will probably have an increased ability to control her emotional stress. Frequently, when there is a relative hypoadrenia, the blood sugar level drops to an unacceptable low. When this happens, mental processes are reduced, and the subject has difficulty coping with any problems which may be present.

Mental Affecting Structural

Chief complaint: lower back and leg pain. The history of this patient is similar to the one above–an alcoholic husband, and she has colitis. The patient recognizes that the colitis correlates with the emotional disturbance. It is being treated by another physician, who prescribed a bland diet. She does not mention the colitis or emotional disturbance because she is seeking help for her lower back and leg pain from a structurally oriented doctor.

Chronic colitis will often cause a weakness of the tensor fascia lata muscle by activation of the neurolymphatic reflex affecting both the colon and the muscle. A reflex subluxation around the second or third lumbar may also develop. The structural imbalance of the pelvis and leg as a result of the tensor fascia lata muscle weakness, as well as the subluxation, will cause back pain. The structurally oriented doctor may obtain temporary relief by manipulation or mechanical support to these areas. He will not obtain permanent results unless the emotional cause of the conditon is brought under control.

Structural Affecting Mental

Chief complaint: schizophrenia. The patient was in an automobile accident several years ago. This seemed to be the beginning of several general health problems, including the mental aberrations eventually diagnosed as schizophrenia. The injury from the auto accident created a structural imbalance of the pelvis.

As a result of this imbalance, proprioceptive communication to the rest of the body became isorganized, developing into what is known in applied kinesiology as a homolateral crawl pattern, which is present in schizophrenics. The pelvic distortion in the patient also created constant stress to the sartorius and gracilis muscles, ultimately affecting their glandular association, the adrenals. Hypoadrenia is quite important in blood sugar regulation. Approximately 60% of schizophrenics have hypoglycemia. Schizophrenia is like all other conditions. There is always a causative factor; it remains to be found for correction of the condition.

In this case, the chemical and structural sides of the triad must be corrected to eliminate the mental factor. Another example: The toxic metals used in dentistry to structurally treat a tooth can directly enter the body’s cells. Many of these (especially mercury), have an affinity for neurons and, along with the galvanic electrical current they generate, can cause psychological imbalances, such as hyperactivity, depression, anxiety, and even suicidal behavior. There is a definite lack of knowledge in the general health care field regarding how significantly structure affects mental health.

The Stomatognathic System

The term stomatognathic usually refers to the mouth and jaw. Here we are looking at a more comprehensive unit and refer to the stomatognathic system, which includes components of the bones of the skull, the mandible, the hyoid, the clavicle and the sternum; the muscles and the ligaments; the dentoalveolar and the temporomandibular joints; the vascular, the lymphatic and the nerve supply systems; the soft tissues of the head; the teeth; the spinal column and the pelvis.

The stomatognathic area can potentially influence the cranial primary respiratory mechanism in either a positive or a negative way, and the converse is true; the cranial primary respiratory mechanism is capable of influencing the stomatognathic area in either a positive or a negative way. The two are inseparable entities. The stomatognathic system interacts with total body function.

There is much disagreement and lack of general knowledge among physicians about the stomatognathic system. One of the major reasons for the controversy is that there are usually no organic findings in most stomatognathic disturbance. Most physicians are trained primarily to differentiate and treat pathological problems. Those who think in terms of functional disturbances are more likely to look for and ultimately treat the functional type of disturbances found in the stomatognathic system.

The structures within the stomatognathic system interact, and a disturbance in one area can, by a domino effect, create a great many additonal disturbances. Often the secondary factors are treated rather than the primary condition. Unfortunately, many who specialize in the treatment of these disturbances have a concept that there is one primary cause of the condition and fit most patients into that slot.

Because of the great amount of interaction within the system, the kind of condition the physician usually treats may be found, but it may not be the primary condition. It is important that a thorough examination protocol be developed, taking into consideration the wide range of etiologic factors in stomatognathic conditions.

The patient, recognizing a symptomatic pattern, often chooses his own diagnosis and treatment with his selection of a physician. Treatment may include occlusal therapy, cervical or cranial manipulation, medication, psychological counseling, biofeedback, surgery, etc. One of these therapies may actually be appropriate for the patient, but it should be the job of the physician consulted as the primary care provider to diagnose the condition and determine the approach needed for its correction.

Since no profession is capable of providing all the potential therapies that might be needed, consultation and referral are often the duty of the primary care physician. It is important to emphasize again that very often the symptomatic pattern presented by the patient is an effect rather than the primary cause; in fact, sometimes the patient’s symptoms are iatrogenic, stemming from the treatment for some other condition. The stomatognathic system can be evaluated very effectively with applied kinesiology.

Muscular imbalance, which develops from occlusal disturbances, can ultimately involve the whole body. First it is important to understand that the jaw-closing muscles of mastication are part of a closed kinematic chain, and contribute to the chain from the mandible to the skull. The mandible, in turn, is anchored to the shoulder girdle by the supra- and infrahyoid muscles.

The neck and head extensor muscles contribute to the posterior portion of the chain. Muscle hypo- or hyper-tonicity in any link of this chain disturbs its balance, and a vicious circle may develop. It may start as a result of TMJ disturbance, which causes muscle contraction, and pain of muscular contraction produces further muscle contraction over the short reflex arc, and this contraction, in turn, increases pain and furthers more contraction.

This inappropriate muscle contraction causes reactions in remote areas of the body by way of stimulating the muscle’s neuromuscular spindle cell and, depending on the location of the muscle, possibly equilbrium proprioceptors; the vicious circle begins.

Information about the inappropriate muscle contraction is sent by the afferent system, which causes reaction in another muscle. The reaction becomes an action that sends information to cause an additional reaction. The far-ranging effects of the disturbance in the closed kinematic chain can go on and on. Not only are the equilibrium proprioceptors of the cervical spine and head-balancing muscles involved, the hyoid muscles are very important in the equilibrium and centering of the body. The hyoid and its associated muscles work like a gyroscope in the body.

Disturbance in the stomatognathic system can influence structure throughout the body. The question should arise as to whether malocclusion is the primary cause of disturbance in the stomatognathic system, or if it is secondary. The orthopedic influence points out that the TMJ syndrome can be caused by postural imbalance.

A short leg or a pelvic disturbance can create secondary imbalances in the stomatognathic system. The influence may be to the neck and head extensors–one area of the closed kinematic chain–ultimately causing imbalance in the temporomandibular joint. Strachan and Robinson, at the Chicago College of Osteopathy, were the first to observe a short leg’s influence on malocclusion. Evaluationg the pattern of masticatory muscles by electromyography, they removed a three-eights inch heel lift from a standing subject’s shoe and found an altered firing sequence of the muscles of mastication during chewing. When the lift was worn, the muscles showed the firing pattern of normal occlusion; with it removed, the firing pattern was one of a severe malocclusion.

The healing powers of nature rest upon balance and the restoration of balance, and whenever and wherever man has interfered with that balance, he has paid the penalty. Total structural balancing is a priority in the applied kinesiology approach to the stomatognathic system.

The interrelationship of the stomatognathic system with the rest of the body does not have to correlate with jaw function and occlusion. In some cases, the only evidence of trouble is pain. Cranial nerves V, VII. IX, and X are all involved in some way. The tongue can become the seat of referred pain from a distant source of irritation in any organ innervated by the trigeminal, facial, vagus, or glossopharyngeal nerve.

The primary cause may be remote from the site of the symptom. This is true whether the direction of involvement is from the stomatognathic system to remote areas, or from remote areas to the stomatognathic system.

By using plethysmography on the digits of the feet and hands and by Doppler ultrasonic evaluation of arterial flow, improved circulation has been demonstrated after occlusal adjustment with a wax bite or with cotton roll supports.

By thus changing the mandible’s position, improved circulation was demonstrated on both the arterial flow and the capillary flow, indicated by the Doppler and the plethysmograph respectively. Influence of the stomatognathic system on general body function can be seen by its influence on muscle function as observed by manual muscle testing.

This was originally demonstrated clinically by Goodheart. Many in the dental profession have used applied kinesiology procedures to evaluate the stomatognathic system. Some have done a very credible job of applying this system in the dental field. It is necessary to have a good working knowledge of manual muscle testing; a great number of errors can potentially develop as a result of its improper use.

History of Kinesiology and Biomechanics

It is usually accepted that Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is the “Father of Kinesiology”. His treatises, Parts Of Animals, Movement Of Animals, and Progression Of Animals, described the actions of the muscles and subjected them to geometric analysis for the first time. He first analyzed and described walking, in which rotatory motion is transformed into translatory motion. Further, he discussed of the problems of pushing a boat under various conditions was, in essence, a precursor of Newton’s three laws of motion. Archimedes (287-212 B.C.), another Greek, determined hydrostatic principles governing floating bodies that are still accepted as swimming.

In addition, Heath (1972) suggested that his inquiries included the laws of leverage and determining the center of gravity and the foundation of theoretical mechanics. Galen (131-201 A.D.) a Roman citizen who tended the Pergamum’s gladiators in Asia Minor, and is considered to have been the first team physician in history. He used numbers to describe muscles. His essay De Motu Musculorum distinguished between motor and sensory nerves, agonist and antagonist muscles, described tonus, and introduced terms such as diarthrosis and synarthrosis.

He taught that muscular contraction resulted from the passage of “animal spirits” from the brain through the nerves to the muscles. Snook (1978) suggested that some writers consider his treatise the first textbook on kinesiology, and he has been termed “the father of sports medicine.”

Kinesiology and anatomy lay untouched from the mystical studies of Galen until the 15th century when Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) advanced them another step. This artist, engineer, and scientist, da Vinci was particularly interested in the structure of the human body as it relates to performance, center of gravity and the balance and center of resistance.

He used letters to identify muscles and nerves in the human body that he retrieved from grave yards in the middle of the night. He described the mechanics of the body during standing, walking up and downhill, rising from a sitting position, jumping, and human gait. To demonstrate the progressive action and interaction of various muscles during movement, he suggested that cords be attached to a skeleton at the points of origin and insertion of the muscles.

Galileo, the father of parabolic mathematics, also proved that the flight (trajectory) of a projectile through a non-resistant medium as a parabola. His work gave impetus to the study of mechanical events in mathematical terms, which in turn provided a basis for the emergence of kinesiology as a science.

The Italian Jesuit Francesco Maria Grimaldi was the first to report hearing sounds made by contracting muscles. Although his book, Physicomatheis de Itlmine, was published in 1663, 2 years after his death, techniques for studying these sounds were not available until 300 years later. In the last few years, the invention of the electronic stethoscope and computer analyses have made research in this field feasible.

Oster has shown that the amplitude of muscle sound is directly proportionate to the weight used to maintain a constant contraction. These sounds appear to originate from the vibration of single muscle fibers, particularly the fast-twitch fibers. In the future it may be possible to use such sounds to determine which muscles are active in a given movement and how hard each is working. (Oster, 1984).

The circulation of the blood through the body was first demonstrated by William Harvey (1578-1657), although he erroneously attributed to the heart the function of recharging the blood with heat and “vital spirit.” Subsequently, Niels Stensen (1648-1686) made the then-sensational declaration that the heart was merely a muscle, not the seat of “natural warmth,” nor of “vital spirit.” This has been acclaimed as the greatest advance in our knowledge of the circulatory system since Harvey’s discovery.

Three years later, Stensen, who has been credited with laying the foundation of muscular mechanics, wrote Elrmentorum Myologiae Spccimm, an “epoch-making” book on muscular function. In this book he asserted that a muscle is essentially a collection of motor fibers; that in composition the center of a muscle differs from the ends (tendons) and is the only part that contracts. “Contraction of a muscle,” wrote Stensen, “is merely the shortening of its individual fibers and is not produced by an increase or loss of substance.”

The word orthopedics was coined by Nicolas Andry (1658-1742) from the Greek roots orthos, meaning “straight,” and pais, meaning “child.” Andry believed that skeletal deformities result from muscular imbalances during childhood. In his treatise, Orthopedics or the Art Of Preventing And Correcting In Infants Deformities Of The Body, originally published in 1741, he defined the term “orthopedist” as a physician who prescribes corrective exercise.

Although this is not the modern usage, Andy is recognized as the creator of both the word and the science. His theories were directly antecedent to the development of the Swedish system of gymnastics by Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839). In Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis, which is “perhaps the most powerful and original piece of scientific reasoning ever published,” Isaac Newton (1642-1727) laid the foundation of modern dynamics. Particularly important to the future of kinesiology was his formulation of the three laws of rest and movement, which express the relationships between forces (interaction) and their effects:

I. Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion, in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. (This is sometimes known as the law of inertia and was originally proposed by Galileo in 1638.)

II. The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed and made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed (law of momentum).

III. To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction; or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and directed to the contrary parts (law of interaction).

The application of these laws to muscular function may be demonstrated by the following analogy: While he is pivoting, a discus thrower must grasp the discus firmly (exert centripetal force) to prevent it from flying out of his hand. In accordance with the third law, the missile exerts an equal and opposite reaction (centrifugal force). When his grip is released and centripetal force no longer interacts with the discus, the implement flies off in a straight line tangential to its former circular path.

The distance covered by the missile is proportionate to the motive force imparted to it, in accordance with the second law. The trajectory of the missile is affected by gravity, wind velocity, and other forces tending to alter its state of uniform motion, as predicted by the first law. According to the Newtonian world view, changes of motion are considered as a measure of the force that produces them. From this theory originated the idea of measuring force by the product of mass and acceleration, a concept that plays a fundamental role in kinetics.

The greater the speed with which the discus thrower whirls, the greater the acceleration applied to the mass of the discus, the farther it will fly before gravity returns it to, earth, and the greater the force said to have been applied to the discus.

Newton is also credited with the first correct general statement of the parallelogram of force, based on his observation that a moving body affected by two independent forces acting simultaneously moved along a diagonal equal to the vector sum of the forces acting independently. By further analysis of the laws of movement as applied by the discus thrower, it can be demonstrated mathematically that the horizontal and vertical forces acting on the flying discus are equal.

The diagonal, which is equal to the vector sum of the horizontal and vertical forces, is, therefore, 45 degrees, and the missile should traverse the greatest distance when it travels at this angle. In practice, of course, other factors of lift, drag, shape, gyroscopic rotation, and so forth enter the situation, and it is possible that the : most effective angle of release may not always be the one that is the theoretical optimum.

Because two or more muscles may pull on a common point of insertion, each at a different angle and with a different force, the resolution of vectors of this type is a matter of considerable importance in the solution of academic problems in kinesiology. Within the recent past, physicists have demonstrated that Newton’s theories are valid only within the frame of reference in which they were conceived; they do not apply to relationships between forces in the Einsteinian world view. This discovery has little significance for the kinesiologist, however, since he deals primarily with the forces of gross muscular movement, and these are governed by the laws of motion set forth by Newton.

In his studies of muscular contraction, James Keill (1674-1719) calculated the number of fibers in certain muscles, assumed that on contraction each fiber became spherical and thus shortened, and from this deduced the amount of tension developed by each fiber to lift a given weight. In An Account Of Animal Secretion, The Amount Of Blood In The Human Body, And Muscular Motion (1708), Keill drew the erroneous conclusion that a muscle could not contract to less than two thirds of its length. In An Essay On The Vital And Other Involuntary Motions Of Animals, published in 1751, Robert Whytt (1714-1766) rejected Baglivi’s theory of muscular action and contended that movement originates from an unconscious sentient principle, or soul.

This idea brought him into disagreement with von Haller (French, 1969). Possibly Whytt may not have comprehended the principle that movement may originate as reflex reaction to external stimuli; however, it appears that he was cognizant of the stretch reflex and the fact that a given stimulus may be adequate to excite one nerve ending but not another. Their differences of opinion arose from the fact that von Haller thought in terms of isolated muscle, and Whytt, in terms of the reflex control of the movements of an organism.

The subject of anatomy, as taught prior to the time of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802), consisted of little more than dogmatic statements handed down through the ages. Through Bichat’s efforts, anatomy became a science solidly founded on the systematic experimentation with the various systems into which he divided the living organism.

Bichat observed that the organs of the body are composed of individual tissues with distinctive characteristics and was the first to describe the synovial membranes. Bichat is regarded as the author of the modern concept of structure as the basis of function, which led to the development of rational physiology and pathology. He distinguished between the cerebrospinal nervous system, which deals with the external relationships between the animal and its environment, and the autonomic nervous system, which controls the organs of internal function.

The six Croonian Lectures on Muscle Motion [William Croone (1633-1684), a professor at Gresham College, England, and author of De Ratione Motus Mrrs culorum (1664), an important early work on muscle, left a will providing for annual lectures on the physiology of muscular motion. Fulton commented, “It is literally true that the history of muscle physiology in the Eighteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries has been largely developed at these annual lectures.” (Muscular Contraction and the Reflex Control of Movement.)

John Hunter (1728-1793) in 1776, 1777, 1779, 1780, 1781, and 1782 brought together all of this great anatomist’s observations concerning the structure and power of muscles and the stimuli by which they are excited. Muscle, he declared, while endowed with life, is fitted for self-motion, and is the only part of the body so fitted.

He emphasized that muscular function could be studied only by observations of living persons, not cadavers. In his lecture series, Hunter described muscular function in considerable detail, including the origin, insertion, and shape of muscles, the mechanical arrangement of their fibers, the two-joint problem, contraction and relaxation, strength, hypertrophy, and many other aspects of the subject. His lectures may be regarded as summarizing all that was known about kinesiology at the end of the eighteenth century, when, unwittingly, kinesiologists stood at the threshold of a discovery that was to revolutionize their methods of investigation. About 1740 physiologists became excited over the phenomena produced by electrical stimulation of muscles.

Haller summarized many of the early experiments in his treatise on muscle initability, and Whytt reported clinical observations on a patient treated by electrotherapy. “Animal electricity” was proposed as a substitute for the “animal spirits” that earlier investigators had believed to be the activating force in muscular movement. During the summer of 1786, Luigi Galvani (1737 – 1798) studied the effects of atmospheric electricity on dissected frog muscles.

He observed that the muscles of a frog sometimes contracted when touched by a scalpel, which led him to the conclusion that there was “indwelling electricity which proceeded along the nerve.” His Commentary on the Effects of Electricity on Muscular motion (1791) is probably the earliest explicit statement of the presence of electrical potentials in nerve and muscle. Galvani is considered the father of experimental neurology.

The study of animal electricity at once became the absorbing interest of the physiologic world. The greatest name among the early students of the subject was Emil DuBois-Reymond (1818-1896), who laid the foundations of modern electrophysiology. Fascinated by the prospect of investigating muscular response produced by electrical stimulation, Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne (1806 – 1875) set out to classify the functions of individual muscles in relation to body movements, although he recognized that isolated muscular action does not exist in nature (Duchenne, 1959).

His masterwork, Physiologie Des Mouvements, appeared in 1865 and has been acclaimed “one of the greatest books of all times.” The modern concept of locomotion originated with the studies of Borelli; however, very little was accomplished in this field prior to the publication of Die Mechanik Der Menschlichen Gerverkzeuge by the Webers in 1836.

Their treatise, which still stands as the classical work accomplished by purely observational methods, firmly established the mechanism of muscular action on a scientific basis. The Weber brothers, Emst Heinrich (1795-1878), Wilhelm Eduard (1804-1891), and Eduard Friedrick Wilhelm (1806-1871), believed that the body was maintained in the erect position primarily by tension of the ligaments, with little or no muscular exertion; that in walking or running the forward motion of the limb is a pendulum-swing owing to gravity; and that walking is a movement of falling forward, arrested by the weight of the body thrown on the limb as it is advanced forward.

The Webers were the first to investigate the reduction in the length of an individual muscle during contraction and devoted much study to the role of bones as mechanical levers. They were also the first to describe in chronologic detail the movements of the center of gravity.

The study of animal mechanics was expanded by the talented and versatile Samuel Haughton (1821-1897) in numerous papers bearing such titles as Outlines Of A New Theory Of Muscular Action (1863), The Muscular Mechanism Of The Leg Of The Ostrich (1865), On Hanging, Considered From A Mechanical And Physiological Point Of View, (1868), And Notes On Animal Mechanics (1861-1865). However, advancement of knowledge concerning body mechanics was greatly impeded by lack of a satisfactory method of chronologic reproduction of movement.

This advance was made when Janssen, an astronomer who had used serial pictures in 1878 to study the transit of Venus, suggested kinematographic pictures to study human motion. Edward Muybridge : (1831-1904) produced his book The Horse In Motion in 1882, and in 1887 wrote his monumental Animal Locomotion in eleven volumes, an abridgment of which was reissued in 1955 under the title The Human Figure in Motion, (Muybridge, 1955). Etienne Jules Marey (1830-1904), who was convinced that movement is the most important of human functions and that all other functions are concerned with its accomplishment, described graphic and photographic methods for biological research in Du Mouvement Dans Les Functiorls Da La Vie (1892) and Le Mouvement (1894).

These photographic techniques opened the way for the experimental studies of Christian Wilhelm Braune (1831-1892) and Otto Fischer (1861 – 1917), which are still considered of major importance in the study of human gait.

Even more famous than these investigations was Braune and Fischer’s report of an experimental method of determining the center of gravity, published in 1889. An abridgment of this is available in an Air Force Technical Documentary Report (Aerospace, 1963). Their major premise was that knowledge of the position of the center of gravity of the human body and of the body’s component parts was fundamental to an understanding of the resistive forces that the muscles must overcome during movement.

Their observations were made on four cadavers, which, after having been preserved by freezing, were nailed to a wall by means of long steel spits. The planes of the centers of gravity of the longitudinal, sagittal, and frontal axes were thus determined. By dissecting the bodies with a saw and locating the points of intersection of the three planes, Braune and Fischer were able to establish the center of gravity of the body. The center of gravity of the component parts was determined in the same manner.

Because one cadaver began to decompose and the investigators were not permitted to dissect a second cadaver, complete observations were made on only two of the four bodies. When the centers of gravity were plotted on a life-size drawing of one of the cadavers and compared photographically with those of a soldier having similar body measurements, the investigators observed a remarkable similarity.

Braune and Fischer concluded that the original position of their frozen cadavers could be considered a normal one and referred to it as “normal stellung,” which was intended to indicate only that it was the standard position in which their measurements were taken. Unfortunately, this term came to be understood as the ideal position, and generations of students were exhorted to imitate it. Their work with cadavers has recently been carried on and extended by Wilfrid Taylor Dempster. (Dempster, 1955). On the basis of subsequent studies, Rudolf A. Fick (1886-1939) concluded that the theory of “normal stellung” was not entirely valid, as the recumbent position of a cadaver could not be transferred to the vertical stance.

The degree of lumbar lordosis is much less when the body is recumbent than when vertical; in the latter position the center of gravity shifts forward considerably more than Braune and Fischer assumed. Fick contended that no one posture is common for people of all races and cultures. Modern anthropological investigations have confirmed his opinion. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were most productive of physiologic studies closely related to kinesiology. Adolf Eugen Fick (1829 – 1901) made important contributions to our knowledge of the mechanics of muscular movement and energetics and introduced the terms isometric and isotonic.

The study of developmental mechanics was introduced by Wilhelm Roux (1850 – 1924), who stated that muscular hypertrophy develops only after a muscle is forced to work intensively, a point of view that was later demonstrated experimentally by Werner W. Siebert. (Siedber, 1960)

B. Morpurgo showed that increased strength and hypertrophy are a result of an increase in the diameter of the individual fibers of a muscle, not a result of an increase in the number of fibers. The theory of progressive resistance exercise is based principally on the studies of Morpurgo and Siebert (Steinhaus, 1955) but Morpurgo’s work is now being questioned. L. Ranvier, about 1880, discovered the difference in the speeds of contraction of red and white muscle. “The importance of his finding,” says Granit, “is that it brought functional aspects into the focus of subsequent research.” (Granit, 1970).

The trajectorial theory was supported by Roux and became the basis for his interpretation of the trajectory system of other bones. In 1892 this theory was classically expressed by Tulius Wolff ( 1836- 1902) in the famous Wolff s law: “Every change in the form and function of a bone or of their function alone is followed by certain definite changes in their internal architecture, and equally definite secondary alteration in their external conformation, in accordance with mathematical laws.” He believed that the formation of bone results from both the force of muscular tensions and the resultant static stresses of maintaining the body in the erect position, and that these forces always intersect at right angles.

Wolff s law also applies to the healing of skin wounds. Bassett has proposed a restatement of Wolffs law in modern terms: “The form of the bone being given, the bone elements place or displace themselves in the direction of the functional pressures and increase or decrease their mass to reflect the amount of functional pressure.” (Basset, 1968).

The probable mechanism is biochemical-a-piezoelectric effect of the bone crystal or from a diode with collagen and mineral components. In his paper Laws of Bone Architecture, which has been proclaimed “the most thorough study of stress and strain in a bone by mathematical analysis of cross sections.” John C. Koch concluded that the compact and spongy materials of bone are so composed as to produce maximum strength with a minimum of material and that, in form and structure, bones are designed to resist in the most economical manner the maximum compressive stresses normally produced by the body weight.

Because the stresses from body weight are so much greater than the tensions that are normally produced by the muscles, reasoned Koch, the effect of muscular action is of relatively little importance in determining the architecture of the bones and, therefore, could be ignored in his analysis. In endeavoring to draw practical applications from his theoretical studies, Koch commented that alterations in posture increase the stress in certain regions and decrease it in others, and that if postural alterations are maintained, the inner structure of the affected bones is altered.

The proper mechanical means of counteracting these alterations, said Koch, was to impose new mechanical conditions by the use of braces, jackets, or other suitable devices to reverse the transformative process and restore the original structure.

Murk Jansen’s monograph On Bone Formation (1920) disagreed with many of Wolffs premises, including the “dualistic” doctrine that bone formation is dependent on both tension and pressure. Wolffs hypothesis that these forces intersect at right-angles in the trabeculae of cancellous bone constituted a fatal flaw in the theory, contended Jansen, since the major trabecular systems do not always cross at right angles.

Jansen insisted that the jerking action of a contracting muscle, combined with gravity, is the chief mechanical stimulus for the formation of bone and, moreover, is a determinative factor in the structure of cancellous bone. Eben J. Carey (1929) also criticized Koch’s denial of the role of muscular tension in the formation of bone and asserted that the dominant factors affecting the growth and structure of bone are the powerful back pressure vectors produced by the forces of muscular contraction. He rejected Koch’s emphasis on static pressure.

The body, he said, is sustained in the upright posture by mutual interaction between the skeleton and the muscles, and he expressed the opinion that the dynamic action of the muscles may exceed the static pressure of body weight. He contended that the normal growth and structure of mature bone is the result of this dynamic muscular activity and of the intrinsic capacity of skeletal cells to proliferate centrifugally against extrinsic centripetal resistances.

F. Pauwels endeavored to demonstrate that muscles and ligaments act as traction braces to reduce the magnitude of stress in the bones. His work was criticized by F. Gaynor Evans on the grounds that it was concerned only with the stresses produced by loads placed on solid models shaped like bones. It is possible that Wolff and Roux overemphasized the importance of mechanical stresses without proper consideration for biological factors, which sometimes exceed mechanical influences. Nevertheless, the theory of functional adaptation to static stress remains a major hypothesis in the study of skeletal development. J. H. Scott (1957) has reviewed the material in the field in an effort to construct a working hypothesis of the developmental and functional relationships between the skeletal system and the neuromuscular system.

Prior even to the time when the development of bone became a subject of heated debate, even more highly controversial hypotheses were introduced into the scientific world. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) published two books. The Origin Of The Species (1859) and The Descent Of Man (1871), which have become classics and have revolutionized man’s ideas concerning the human body.

Darwin’s conception of man as a “modified descendant of some pre-existing form” whose framework is constructed on the same model as that of other mammals, and whose body contains both rudimentary muscles that serve useful functions in the lower mammals and modified structures that resulted from a gradual change from quadrupedal to bipedal posture, was at first bitterly opposed.

Now generally accepted, his concepts have clarified many questions pertaining to kinesiology that might otherwise have remained obscure and have attracted to the study of kinesiology many physical anthropologists whose contributions have been of great value.

Yet another scientist of the nineteenth century, Angelo Mosso (1848 – 1910), made an important contribution to the study of kinesiology, the invention of the ergograph in 1884. This instrument, now available in an endless array of specialized forms, has become a nearly indispensable tool for the study of muscular function in the human body.

The first extensive compendium on body mechanics, The Human Motor, by Jules Amar, was published in 1914. Inspired largely by the increase in work productivity achieved by Frederick Winslow Taylor’s (1972) application of scientific principles of body mechanics to industry, Amar (1879 – ?) sought to bring together, in one volume, all the physical and physiological elements of industrial work. (Amar, 1972).

Since its publication, countless industrial studies based on Amar’s principles have been published, perhaps the best known of which are the numerous reports of the British industrial Fatigue Research Board and of Frank B. (1868-1924) and Lillian M. (1878-1972) Gilbreth.

This type of kinesiologic research initiated studies in the unexplored areas of time and motion. Investigations in this field have been greatly accelerated as a result of rapid advances in engineering and the development of machines so complex that the physical abilities of the human operator become a limiting factor in their use.

Scientists have brought together massive collections of data pertaining to the application of scientific principles of body mechanics to industry, now known as human engineering, or the science of ergonomics–“the customs, habits, or laws of work.” Attempts to solve the problem of space flight have provided further impetus studies of this nature.

Kinesiology of the Human Body Under Normal And Pathological Conditions, by Arthur Steindler (1878-1959), was an important contribution to our understanding of body mechanics. Information has continued to accumulate, and some of the facts and theories that have been presented are both curious and instructive.

As an example, men frequently sustain femoral fractures as a result of automobile accidents, whereas women are more likely to incur dislocations of the hip. This difference is attributed to the social conditioning of women to sit with their knees or legs crossed, whereas men are conditioned sit with their legs spread apart. An impact on a person sitting with the knees or legs crossed tends to drive the head of the femur into the acetabulum, but a similar impact Idy of individual sitting with his legs apart drives the head of the femur further in 1 body acetabulum until the femur buckle!

As early as 1880, Wedenski demonstrated by the existence of action currents in human muscles, although practical use of this discovery had to await the invention of a more sensitive instrument. This became available when W Einthoven developed the string galvanometer in 1906. The physiologic aspects of electromyography were first discussed in a paper by H. Piper, of Germany, 1910-1912; however, interest in the subject did not become widespread in the English-speaking countries until publication of a report E. D. Adrian in 1925. (Adrian, 1925).

By utilizing electromyographic techniques, Adrian demonstrated for the first time that it was possible to determine the amount of activity in the been human muscles at any stage of a movement. The development of the electromyograph represents one of the greatest advances kinesiology. By means of this instrument many generally accepted concepts of muscle action have been proved erroneous and new theories have been brought forth. In this area the work of John V. Basmajian has been of particular value to students of kinesiology and is frequently cited in this book. (Basmajian, 1977). The brilliant studies of Archibald V. Hill ( 1886- 1977) in the oxygen consumption of muscle won him a share in a Nobel Prize in 1922.

Hugh E. Huxley’s (1924- ) work in the ultrastructure of striated muscle and Andrew F. Huxley’s (1917- ) studies in the physiology of striated muscle distinguish them as leading authorities in their respective fields. (Hill, 1971; Huxley, H. E., 1971; Huxley, A. F., 1971). Interest in the subject of posture has declined among kinesiologists in the United States during the last few years. In part, result decline may have resulted from general acceptance of the dictum that “the physiological benefits obtained from correction of common postural defects are mostly imaginary” (Karpovich, 1965) in part, it may reflect the growing realization that individual differences almost preclude valid generalizations.

Perhaps much of the effort that in earlier times was devoted to the study of static posture is now directed to research concerning dynamic locomotion. Wallace Fenn (1893-1971), Plato Schwartz, Verne Inmann, Herbert Elftman, Dudley Morton, and Steindler should be listed among the scientists who have made important contributions to knowledge concerning this phase of kinesiology. The use of cinematography for kinesiological studies of athletes and industrial workers has become commonplace. An important recent development in the study of human motion is the use of cineradiographic techniques.

In time, advances in technique may make it possible to record the complete sequence of musculoskeletal movements rather than only a fraction of them. A fascinating new parameter was opened up with the invention of the electronic stroboscope by Harold Edgerton. This instrument, which is capable of exposures as short as one millionth of a second, can record in a series of instantaneous photographs an entire sequence of movement.

This apparatus seems particularly promising for analysis of the various sequences of skilled movement. In a somewhat related field, the science of aerodynamics has greatly increased our knowledge of the movement of objects in space through investigations involving the use of wind tunnels and other specialized research tools and artificially produced environments. Psychologists, psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, and other social scientists have become interested in investigating the psychosomatic aspects of kinesiology.

The studies of J. H. Van Den Berr, Edwin Straus, and Temple Fay may be cited as representative analyses that have contributed significantly to our knowledge concerning the “why” of human movement. (Van Den Berg, 1952; Straus, 1953; Fay, 1955).

According to the old psychologic stimulus-response theory, the individual is merely a communication channel between the input and the output. This view fails to consider the contribution that the individual makes to the circuit. In information theory it is recognized that through experience man accumulates certain knowledge about his external environment, such as how an object travels through space, and that the signals he receives from his kinesthetic proprioceptors reveal to him how his body is responding to the external presentation.

The individual is viewed as a limited-capacity channel, receiving and responding to signals originating from internal sources as well as from the external display. The relative importance of these two types of stimuli in determining individual response appears to vary with practice and with the ease or difficulty of the required responsive. One of the chief difficulties confronting a performer is to separate one signal from another when they are presented in rapid succession.

Perception of essential data is usually obscured by competing signals that create “noise” on the input circuits. A distinguishing characteristic of a skilled performer is his ability to select, integrate, and respond only to those signals that are germane to the situation; that is, in effect, to filter out signals that are mere noise. The fact that stimuli may be correlated with each other may enhance the difficulty for the performer.

Engineering theory treats communications systems as organisms. Because the two are operationally equivalent (Table 1-1), the insights of the cyberneticians (scientists who postulate that the processes of control are similar in the animal, the machine, and an organizational structure) and the psychologists are also equivalent and may be used interchangeably.

The modifications that a man makes in his environment cause a change of input from that environment into his organism. Feedback from these functional alterations affects his structure. Alterations of structure affect the relationship between the various components and result in changes in function. Thus man to some extent is his own architect. Since the appearance of the first edition of this book, the physiologically motivated researchers largely have concerned themselves with the waveforms of electrical activity in the nerves or brain or in the transmission properties of nerve tissue. Psychologically oriented investigators have tended to search for regular descriptions of the input-output of the human organisms.

For example, the neurogeometric theory holds that the receptor and the motor systems are linked by space-time organized feedback mechanisms. These are multidimensional. Motion is made up of posture, transport, manipulation, and tremor movements, each controlled by its own sensory feedback. The brain coordinates and regulates these feedbacks. Learning is thus based on the brain’s integration of the anatomic and physiologic relations between the efferent and the afferent systems.

Such new insights have rich import for kinesiology, but also introduce new complications. The advanced student must now become accustomed to such explanations as the suggestion that a smooth landing after a drop is due to the release of a “complete preprogrammed open-loop sequence of neuromuscular activity virtually unaided by myostatic feedback.” (Watt, 1966).

While further use of the electromyograph will continue to refine our understanding of how the body functions, it seems unlikely that additional major surprises will emerge from this technique. Probably, the next important advances will result from computer simulation studies, particularly of situations in which it would be impossible to use human subjects. In the second half of the twentieth century, kinesiology has gradually emerged as a distinct entity in the family of scholarly scientific disciplines. Like all disciplines, its origins have been in discrete human needs and practical problems; its organized form has become much more comprehensive and theoretically integrated.

As a discipline, the focus is on the movement behavior of living organisms. The Society for Behavioral Kinesiology has defined behavioral kinesiology as “the science of the structures and processes of human movement and their modification by inherent factors, by environmental events, and by therapeutic intervention.” Although definitions such as this have done much to expand the concept of kinesiology beyond the historical constraints of “applied anatomy,” the limitation of a discipline to the study of human phenomena and applications is inappropriate and has not been characteristic of other biologically based disciplines.

For one thing, such limitation excludes the impressive body covered by scientific research these paradigms are found to be unable to explain them. A crisis arises, and new theories are devised to explain these anomalies. In effect, a scientific revolution occurs.

The next generation of scientists has a new world view and poses questions that were not even conceivable under the old theories. Rather than being a linear progression in which each step brings mankind closer to “the truth,” scientific development is a process of evolution whose successive stages are characterized by an increasing understanding of nature. It is, Kuhn (1970) suggests, evolution from what we know to evolution toward what we wish to know. Unfortunately space here is insufficient to discuss this further. Students who wish to understand how the developments described in this chapter actually occurred will find Kuhn’s booklet an essential guide.

This Science of Movement originated from the study of muscle and joint movement. Kinesiology monitors and tests the energetics of the body and balances its structural, biochemical and electromagnetic aspects. It also can aid in distinguishing the truth from the false. From original muscle response research called Applied Kinesiology, developed by Dr. George Goodheart, D.C., in 1964, simple body movements were used to evaluate physical functioning. All forms of kinesiology use manual muscle testing as a fundamental tool.

The basic principle of applied kinesiology is that testing the tension in specific muscles reveals all stresses, imbalances and blockages in the nervous system. All muscles in the body are connected to different internal organs, endocrine glands, spinal vertebrae and nerve roots, teeth, specific nutrients, thoughts and feelings, acupuncture meridians, and other parts of the body’s electrical system.

Dr. Robert Lovett and the American physiotherapists Henry and Florence Kendall originally developed manual muscle testing. In 1949, Kendall & Kendall published a classic reference work on the subject that has become the foundation of all muscle testing. The Kendalls used around 100 manual muscle tests in their work.

Now Kinesiologists are further developing manual muscle testing applications. Especially in clinical kinesiology where Dr. Alan Beardall developed another 250-300 new manual muscle tests. In 1968, Dr. Alan Beardall became one of Dr. Goodheart’s most brilliant protégés. Dr. Goodheart developed all of the groundwork on applied kinesiology muscle testing based on the Chinese acupuncture philosophy. In 1975, Beardall began innovating and testing the clinical kinesiology method, discovering over 250 specific muscle tests while concentrating primarily on related muscle reflexes. Dr. Beardall integrated all major chiropractic techniques, numerous adjunctive therapies such as acupuncture, nutrition, and homeopathy, including Flower remedies and Chinese Five Element diagnostics into his Clinical Kinesiology.

Clinical Kinesiology includes the testing component for each individual, which translates what is going on energetically in the body. Goodheart’s and Beardall’s original research on Kinesiology was given wider application by Dr. John Diamond, whose books brought the subject of behavioral kinesiology to the public. Diamond determined that a positive or negative response occurs with stimuli both physical and mental.

In 1975, the well-known psychiatrist and physician Dr. David Hawkins began research on the kinesiological response to truth and falsehood. Through 20+ years of research, Hawkins was able to analyze the full spectrum of the levels of human consciousness developing a fascinating map of the geography of man’s experience. This “anatomy of consciousness” produces a profile of the entire human condition, allowing a comprehensive analysis of the emotional and spiritual development of individuals, societies, and the race in general.

This allowed kinesiology to become a guide for all of us as to our place on the ladder of spiritual enlightenment and on our own personal journeys to reach our potential. A great degree of accuracy and reproducibility is achieved in manual muscle testing when done by individuals knowledgeable in the science and proficient in its art.

Although manual muscle testing is a reliable indicator of function when done properly, this diagnostic tool is no better than the person performing the test. It could be compared with a time-honored diagnostic tool, the stethoscope, which functions no better than what is between the earpieces. A stethoscope in the hands of a poorly trained practitioner, deficient in both the science and art of its use, will consistently give erroneous information, jeopardizing the patient’s health and damaging the examiner’s reputation.

Physiology of Muscle Testing

Dietrich Klinghardt, M.D., and Louisa Williams, M.S., D.C., N.D., have discovered that the skin’s normal electrodermal activity is always measured as a negative polarity. In fact, the skin of the palms of the hand and the soles of the feet is actually 10-25 millivolts more negative. However, the skin over a diseased organ or an injured area has a positive charge. The theory of an injury current was first described by Luigi Galvani in 1794 and then confirmed by Robert Becker M.D., in the early 1960s. Thus, when the examiner holds the negatively-charged palm of his hand over a positively-charged skin surface–at the location of a patient’s functional disturbance–a capacitor is formed.

Physics describes the ability of two parallel plates to store an electrical charge and thus serve as a capacitor. As soon as the two plates (hand & skin) come in contact, an electric current flows for a short time. This increased electron flow stimulates the unmyelinated autonomic and sensory nerve fibers in the corresponding region. As a result of recent research, it is now believed that up to 80% of all autonomic nerve fibers are sensory not motor. This flood of sensory action potentials excites core regions of the posterior horn of the spinal cord. There exist, from this point, nerve fiber connections with the sympathetic motor region of the lateral horn and the alpha and gamma motor neurons of the anterior horn.

The sympathetic motor fibers innervate the intrafusal muscle spindle fibers. The alpha motor neurons innervate the extrafusal fibers, which are directly connected with the Golgi tendon organs. These structures are responsible for the muscle tone of the corresponding muscles. Changes in the “electrical state” of these receptors determine whether a test muscle will be strong or weak.

The latest investigations have shown that only the sympathetic innervations of the muscle spindles–independently of the activity of the alpha and gamma motor neurons–can be responsible for an increase or decrease in muscle tone. The Golgi tendon organs have a remote inhibiting effect: spinal interneurons send collaterals to motor neurons that communicate, via internuncial fibers, over a number of spinal cord segments, and trigger muscle weakness there. The impulses, which reach the spinal cord, communicate within milliseconds with higher centers in particular with the reticular activating system and the cerebral cortex.

From here, impulses can again reach the test muscle via descending inhibitory nerve pathways to the motor anterior and lateral horn cells, which leads to a weakening of the previously strong muscle. Chronic diseases usually have a significant common component, namely latent chronic ischemia (diminished blood flow). This is caused by the sympathetic innervations of the arterioles in the disease region. The cause of this is a disease-induced dysregulation of the autonomic ganglia.

Therapy Localization of Disturbances

The examining hand should generate an increased tissue pressure in the disease region, in order to increase the ischemia briefly. If the superordinate ganglia are fully functional, this triggers a swift local counter reaction (loss of sympathetic tone) without the participation of the higher reflex pathways. If local regulation has rigidified due to ganglial illness, then the ischemia signal will be transmitted to higher centers via the above-mentioned reflex pathways, which will then trigger a counter-regulation via the intact collateral pathways. This leads to a loss of muscle tone in a number of segments or even in the entire body.

In order to generate sufficient afferent ischemia signals, moderate to strong pressure during therapy localization is recommended. A diseased region or diseased ganglion will reveal itself by the weakening of the previously strong test muscle. American physiologist Irvin Korr has measured the sympathetic sweat gland reaction (damp regions of the skin), which shows itself through a reduction in skin resistance. This is an indication for a high vasomotor tone, which leads to chronic vasoconstriction. In every case, Korr found a correlation between sympathetic hyperactivity, low skin resistance and visceral pathology.

This is also the basis for the EAV (electro-acupuncture according to Voll) measurements. This form of kinesiological therapy localization is a test of the functional competence of the sympathetic system.

Positive therapy localization signifies: over-burdened or diseased ganglion and associated autonomic nerve pathways, ischemia and chaotic afferent autonomic and sensory nerve signals. Blocked regulation is a rigidification of the mesenchyme due to medications, surgical intervention, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, chronic emotional stress, food and environmental allergies, toxic ganglia and, most widespread, silver/amalgam fillings.

These stresses primarily affect the autonomic nervous system, whose fibers begin or end in the mesenchyme of the extracellular space. Actually, it is these fibers and their associated ganglia whose regulation becomes “rigid.” Your brain filters the unconscious information into your unconscious mind, storing the data in your reticular activating system–the part of your subconscious mind that regulates the special software in your body.

The reticular activating system functions as a filtering system, working to filter data into either your conscious or unconscious mind as needed. This needed information lies just below the surface for recall, and for the purpose of monitoring the body. If the system records an imbalance, you’re notified immediately–the body-mind works together to create a symptom.

The reticular activating system continually evaluates, sorts, and prioritizes possible dangers. Its signals become the feedback or “body language” interpreted through the muscle testing. You need not depend on chemical drugs or risky surgery to obtain answers. Your body can talk, if you simply communicate with it.

Kinesiology provides a fascinating way of communicating and healing through the inseparable energy linking mind, body and spirit. Information from your body’s computer software system relays hidden, energetic messages to the surface for consideration and indication of healing through muscle testing. The energy/organ system so intertwines that it’s not unusual to experience knee pain, for example, when the kidney becomes unbalanced. The reason?

The knee is located along the course of the kidney meridian. If an organ/energy pathway is blocked, off balance or “complaining” a bit, the condition is usually connected to a problem in a related organ.


Imagine an island floating in a vast ocean, including the water, coral reefs, fish, trees, air, sun and sky is interdependent. Each element complements and sustains every other element. Ecological balance and survival requires the synergism of all. Your body functions like this. Its survival depends upon a balanced ecology; all components work together to support the whole.

Daily, the body experiences problems, which reflect inadequate nutritional support, promoting a wide range of biochemical reactions. Chemical imbalances detected through Clinical Kinesiology testing require treatment of biochemical components in the body. Diet changes and appropriate nutrition will support the body’s survival. When the body chemistry tests out of balance, specific nutrients can be tested to rebalance it; these include super foods, vitamins, minerals, glandulars, enzymes, herbs, tinctures, etc.


Structural energy is that inherent in the body structure itself. The muscles are all attached to the bony frame, and it is their imbalance and pull against these attachments, which affects the positioning and posture of the body. A variety of chiropractic treatment methods may be used to address imbalances in body structure, which include the bony joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Weak organs create reactive muscle patterns that cause joint subluxations (misalignments) and fixations, resulting in pain and loss of function in the associated areas.


Electromagnetic imbalances usually implicate the organs and acupuncture meridians. Different treatment methods can bring about specific results however, Clinical Kinesiology electromagnetic considerations rely primarily on acupuncture, herbal and homeopathic philosophies of treatment. Therapeutic magnets may also be used to realign body energy, along with laser therapy and Neuro-emotional remedies or Flower remedies. These particular remedies work on an energetic level rather than a chemical/nutrient level.

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