There are lots of contraception methods nowadays. The efficiency of these methods is evaluated according to Pearl Index. Pearl Index equals to the number of women become pregnant within the year of the use certain contraceptive method for every 100 women.
Barrier or mechanical contraceptive methods
They are based on the mechanical barrier preventing spermatozoa penetration into cervix of uterus canal. They are condoms, vagina diaphragms, contraceptive sponges, cervix caps.
Pearl Index – 12,5 – 20.
The advantages: it prevents not only of unwanted pregnancy but of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV.
Disadvantages: the risk of condom breach. It happens once in 150-300 sexual intercourses. Moreover it decreases the sexual feelings in both partners. Many suppose that it is more convenient to use female condoms that represent loose polyurethane membrane placed by one end into the vagina and covering cervix of uterus and by the other end placed at the vagina entry.
Vagina diaphragm, cervix cap
Pearl Index – 12 – 14,0
They make a mechanical barrier preventing the spermatozoa penetration into the cervix of uterus canal. They are being input right before the sexual intercourse and should be taken out at least 8 hours after the sexual intercourse. They may be used several times. But they don’t prevent of the sexually transmitted diseases. The vagina diaphragms are often applied inn combination with spermicidal cream or gel that increases their efficiency.
Chemical contraception methods
The act of spermicides is based on the use of such materials breaking the spermatozoa cell membrane. These are creams, gels, suppositories, tablets and soluble membranes.
Pearl Index – 14 – 24,5
The combination with barrier methods increases the contraceptive effect.
The advantages: they decrease the risk of unwanted pregnancy.
Disadvantages: unsafe contraceptive effect. They should be put into the vagina 0.5 – 1 hour before the sexual intercourse.
Pearl Index – 0,1 – 3.
This is the most secure method. There appeared medications within the last decade containing minimal hormones that don’t lead to the body weight gain and don’t affect the metabolic processes, and may provide medical effect for instance to regulate the menstrual cycle or at painful menses.
The advantages: high contraceptive effect. Hormonal background regulation.
Disadvantages: they don’t prevent of sexually transmitted diseases. The strictly regular intake is required. Side effects are possible.
The use of IUD. This method is most popular within the women already having children. The maximal period of the IUD is 5 years.
Pearl Index – 1 – 3,0.
The advantages: high contraceptive effect.
Disadvantages: IUD doesn’t prevent of sexually transmitted diseases. Possible side effects are: prolonged and plentiful menses.
The IUDs containing progestogen hormones don’t cause this side effect. Such IUDs are also applied to healing and prophylaxis of uterus myoma, endomtriosis.
Physiological contraception method
It is based on the continence within the “risk” period or on the use of the other contraceptive methods within this period. The “risk” period is the one from 11 till 18 day of the menstrual cycle at 28 day cycle.
Pearl Index – 20,0.
The advantages: simplicity and the lack of side effects.
Disadvantages: unsafe contraception especially at irregular menstrual cycle.
It is required in case:
- unprotected intercourse occurred
- the condom was broken or come off
- precocious extraction of the cap or diaphragm from the vagina
- of spontaneous IUD falling out
- there was a miss in pills use
- forced intercourse occurred.
Emergency contraception is prescribed within first 24-72 hours after the sexual intercourse. The lesser is the interval between the drug use and sexual intercourse the higher is the method efficiency. Emergency contraception and hormonal contraceptives contraindications: trombophlebitis, trhomboembolism in anamnesis, severe liver diseases, bleedings, breast cancer and endometry.
Contraception is not only unwanted pregnancy prevention but also saving personal health and the right way to give birth healthy baby in the future!